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UCC and Tribal Concerns UPSC NOTE

 


UCC and Tribal Concerns

  • Tribal villages fear that significant parts of their way of life would be undone if a UCC is put in place.

  • Special legislation such as the PESA Act, 1996; the Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908; and the Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act, 1876, recognise customary practices in Jharkhand, which are protected under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution

  • There also judicial precedents which recognise customary practices and authorise lower courts to make decisions on their basis.

  • There are liberal provisions of land transfer in legislation such as the Chhota Nagpur Tenancy Act and Santhal Parganas Act, which are based on customary practices. 

    • Land can be transferred to any Scheduled Tribe person, regardless of gender, clan or tribe. 

  • That is why it is important to ask what the specifics and scope of a UCC would be.

  • Many tribal bodies in Nagaland, Meghalaya, and Mizoram have raised what they claim is the unconstitutionality of a UCC in the presence of protections enshrined in Articles 371A (special provision with respect to Nagaland) and 371G (special provision with respect to Mizoram) of the Constitution of India.

  • A UCC could also come in conflict with the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution (which facilitates the establishment of autonomous district councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Tripura).

Carnelian

  • Carnelian is a type of gemstone or semi-precious stone.

  • It is a variety of chalcedony, which is a form of quartz mineral.

  • Carnelian is known for its vibrant reddish-brown to orange color, often with translucent or opaque qualities.

  • The stone has been highly valued and used in jewelry and decorative arts for centuries.

  • It has been historically used in various cultures for its believed metaphysical properties, including enhancing vitality, courage, and creativity.



  • Carnelian beads were commonly used in ancient civilizations for making jewelry and adornments.

  • Gujarat, a state in western India, is known for being a significant source of carnelian stones.


  • Location: Porpanaikottai in Pudukottai district of Tamil Nadu


Archaeological findings:

  • A gold stud with a floral design and six petals, weighing 0.26 grams, found at a depth of 133 cm.

  • A bone point with pointed ends and carvings, possibly used for weaving, found at a depth of 140-160 cm.

  • A broken piece of carnelian bead, indicating domestic trade, found at a depth of 140-160 cm.



  • Over 150 other artifacts found, including potsherds, hopscotches, spouts, pieces of glass bangles and beads, a terracotta lamp, a coin, a spindle whorl, rubbing stone, and a couple of graffiti.


Significance of discoveries:

  • The gold stud is believed to have been used as a nose stud and reflects the culture of the Sangam Age.

  • The bone point suggests its use in weaving.

  • The carnelian bead indicates domestic trade, possibly sourced from Gujarat.


Previous findings and studies:

  • Carnelian beads have been found at Kodumanal and other places in Tamil Nadu, typically sourced from Gujarat.

  • Studies conducted using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) indicate the presence of a fort at Porpanaikottai.

  • Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a remote sensing technology that uses laser light to measure distances and create precise three-dimensional representations of objects or environments

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: UCC and Tribal Concerns UPSC NOTE
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