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Global South's Rising Influence UPSC NOTE

 

  • The Global South, which comprises developing and often deprived nations, is gaining prominence on the international stage.

  • At the G-20 summit in Delhi, Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasized that the Global South's priorities drove India's Presidency.

  • Developing countries like Indonesia, India, Brazil, and South Africa are consecutively hosting major international gatherings, indicating the Global South's growing influence.

  • Prime Minister Modi hosted a virtual summit called the "Voice of the Global South," which included around 125 countries to discuss and set priorities.

Global South's Perspective:

  • PM Modi stated that the Global South, representing three-fourths of humanity, should have an equivalent voice in global governance.

  • The induction of the 55-nation African Union at the G-20 summit was seen as a significant outcome, highlighting the Global South's role.

Climate Change and Development:

  • The Global South played a key role in the proclamation of the 'Loss and Damage fund' at the CoP 27 climate change conference in Egypt.

  • The upcoming CoP 28 in the UAE will focus on mitigating climate change while considering the development priorities of the Global South.

Inclusion in International Forums:

  • The G7, a grouping of the world's richest countries, extended invitations to developing nations, including India and Brazil, as an outreach to the Global South.

  • The BRICS summit in South Africa expanded its membership, partially attributing this expansion to efforts to engage the Global South.

  • The G-77, a grouping of developing nations at the UN, held a high-level Summit in Havana, Cuba, emphasizing the region's importance.

Global South's Challenges:

  • Cuban President Miguel Diaz-Canel called developing countries the biggest victims of a "multidimensional crisis," which includes issues like "abusive unequal trade," global warming, and climate change.

Formation of the Global South:

  • The Group of 77 (G-77) was formed in 1964 as an intergovernmental organization of developing countries to promote their collective economic interests.

  • Today, the G-77 includes 134 countries, referred to as 'G-77+China' in international forums, although China is not technically part of the group.

Origin of the Term 'Global South':

  • The term 'Global South' is believed to have been coined by American anti-war activist Carl Oglesby during the Cold War. 

  • It refers to the oppressed nations by 'the North' (U.S., Europe, Russia).

  • Discussions about organizing countries of the Global South led to the establishment of the UN Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) in 1974.

The 'Brandt Line':

  • In the 1980s, economists developed the 'Brandt Line,' a more accurate representation of the economic North and South, as the original term did not always geographically align with economic realities.

Recent Revival of Global South's Influence:

  • Interest in the Global South declined in the early 21st century but has revived due to factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic, economic downturn, and global geopolitical shifts.

Changing Global Governance Landscape:

  • A shifting center of gravity in global governance toward the Global South, with various international organizations and players seeking its participation in decision-making.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Global South's Rising Influence UPSC NOTE
Global South's Rising Influence UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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