Myth in the field of Microbiome UPSC NOTE

 What is Microbiome

  • A microbiome is the community of microorganisms that can usually be found living together in any given habitat.

  • Microbiota is composed of 6 phyla including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia.

  • The human microbiome comprises bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotes which reside within and outside our bodies.

  • Microbiome make impact both in health and  disease.

  • Contributes to the enhancement or impairment of metabolic and immune functions.

Microbiome from mother to child

  • Newborn babies get their first microbiome from their mother during birth.

  • Benign bacteria in the maternal gut share genes  with the child.

  • Maternal gut microbes may have both direct and indirect effects during pregnancy.

  • Exclusive breastfeeding helps a baby to develop a healthy and diverse gut microbiome.

Are microbes dangerous

  • Bacteria, fungi and viruses—can make you ill.

  • In fact ,there are trillions of microbiomes are living inside our body and not harmful.

  • Microbiomes helps to digest food, protect against infection and even maintain your reproductive health.


Why in News

 In the state of Nagaland, Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) was extended.

What is AFSPA?

  • Armed Forces Special Powers Act.

  • The objective to implement the AFSPA Act is to maintain law and order in the disturbed areas.

  • It is a Parliamentary act that grants special powers to the Indian Armed Forces and the state and paramilitary forces in areas classified as “disturbed areas”. 

  • Currently AFSFA is in some parts of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.

  • The law first came into effect in 1958 to deal with the uprising in the Naga.

  • In Tripura revoked in 2015 and Meghalaya was under AFSPA for 27 years, until it was revoked by the MHA from 1st April 2018.

  • AFSPA is under the control of MHA.

  • In November 2004, the Central government appointed a five-member committee headed by Justice B P Jeevan Reddy to review the provisions of the act in the northeastern states.

  • The 5th report of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) on public order has also recommended the repeal of the AFSPA.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Myth in the field of Microbiome UPSC NOTE
Myth in the field of Microbiome UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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