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Razakars UPSC NOTE



  • The Razakars were the paramilitary volunteer force of the nationalist party in the Hyderabad State under the British Raj. 

  • Formed in 1938 by the Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen leader Bahadur Yar Jung. 

  • They expanded considerably during the leadership of Qasim Razvi around the time of Indian independence. 

  • They were deployed in the cause of maintaining Muslim rule in Hyderabad and resisting integration into India. 

  • During the period November 1947–August 1948, when Hyderabad was under a Standstill Agreement with India, the Indian government made repeated demands to the Nizam of Hyderabad to disband the Razakars, which were all turned down. 

  • In the eventual armed invasion launched by India, dubbed a 'police action', the Razakars formed the main resistance to the Indian Army.

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Indian Minister for Home Affairs, decided to undertake "police action" in Hyderabad State to force the King Nizam's hand. 

  • Operation Polo was launched and the Indian Army, led by Major General J. N. Chaudhuri, entered the state from five directions. 

  • The Razakars fought briefly against the overwhelming attack by Indian forces before surrendering on 18 September 1948. 

  • Mir Laik Ali, the prime minister of the Nizam, and Qasim Rizvi were arrested.

  • The Nizam surrendered and agreed to disband the Razakars.

  • Qasim Razvi was initially jailed and then allowed to move to Pakistan where he was granted asylum.

Annexation of Hyderabad

Annexation of Hyderabad

  • At the time of Partition in 1947, the princely states of India, who in principle had self-government within their own territories, were subject to subsidiary alliances with the British, giving them control of their external relations. 

  • With the Indian Independence Act 1947, the British abandoned all such alliances, leaving the states with the option of opting for full independence.

  • However, by 1948 almost all had acceded to either India or Pakistan. 

  • One major exception was that of the wealthiest and most powerful principality, Hyderabad, where the Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII, a Muslim ruler who presided over a largely Hindu population, chose independence and hoped to maintain this with an irregular army.

  • The Nizam was also troubled by the Telangana rebellion, which he was unable to crush.

  • In November 1947, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the Dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state.

  • Claiming that it feared the establishment of a Communist state in Hyderabad.

  • Nizam's power had weakened because of the Telangana Rebellion and the rise of a radical militia known as the Razakars whom he could not put down. 

  • India invaded the state in September 1948, following a crippling economic blockade, and multiple attempts at destabilizing the state through railway disruptions, the bombing of government buildings, and raids on border villages.

  • After the defeat of Razakars, the Nizam signed an instrument of accession, joining India.

  • Operation Polo was the code name of the Hyderabad "police action" in September 1948, by the newly independent Dominion of India against Hyderabad State.

  • It was a military operation in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the Nizam-ruled princely state, annexing it into the Indian Union.

  • The operation led to massive violence on communal lines, at times perpetrated by the Indian Army.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Razakars UPSC NOTE
Razakars UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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