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Reciprocity & Non-Reciprocity UPSC NOTE

 

  • Reciprocity is a fundamental principle in physics, stating that if a signal can be transmitted from Point A to Point B, it can also be transmitted from Point B to Point A by exchanging the positions of the source and destination.

  • Everyday Examples: Reciprocity is observed in everyday life, such as when you can shine a flashlight at a friend, and they can shine it back. 

  • It is also encountered in counterintuitive scenarios like interrogation scenes in movies.

  • Applications in Antennas: Engineers use reciprocity in antenna design and testing. 

  • Antennas can both send and receive signals, and reciprocity simplifies the testing process by allowing engineers to observe how an antenna transmits a signal to determine its reception quality.

  • Challenges in Signal Exchange: In certain situations, such as espionage or high-power laser transmission, reciprocal signal exchange can lead to problems. 

  • Spying requires capturing information without revealing one's position, and laser back-reflection can damage the laser.

  • Breaking Reciprocity: To address these challenges, engineers use devices that break the principle of reciprocity, allowing signals to travel in one direction only. 

  • Such devices consist of components A, B, and C, where A allows specific input waves to pass, B rotates the wave's direction, and C filters waves based on their orientation.

  • Applications Beyond Electromagnetic Waves: Non-reciprocity is crucial in various technologies, including quantum computing, where researchers are exploring non-reciprocal devices that can operate at extremely low temperatures to amplify signals effectively.

  • Miniaturization: Non-reciprocal devices are being developed on nanometer and micrometer scales, making them extremely small. 

  • They have potential applications in technologies like self-driving cars for efficient signal monitoring.

  • Rapidly Growing Research Field: The field of non-reciprocity is rapidly growing and requires young minds to explore its potential and depth in various applications.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Reciprocity & Non-Reciprocity UPSC NOTE
Reciprocity & Non-Reciprocity UPSC NOTE
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