Caste Census in India UPSC NOTE

 Is there a relation between caste, religion, poverty and discrimination?

  • Caste is a hereditary social system, divides people into different groups based on their birth., upper castes at the top and the lower castes at the bottom. Lower caste people have traditionally been discriminated against in all aspects of life.

  • Religion is a major factor that influences social inequality in India. The majority of Indians are Hindus, but there are also significant minorities of Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, and Jains. Religious minorities often face discrimination, especially in rural areas.

Is there a relation between caste, religion, poverty and discrimination?

  • Poverty is a major problem in India, with over 20% of the population living below the poverty line. Poverty is disproportionately concentrated among the lower castes and religious minorities.

  • Discrimination is a widespread problem in India, and it is often based on caste, religion, and poverty. Lower caste people and religious minorities are often denied access to education, employment, and other basic services. They may also be subjected to violence and other forms of abuse.

What do socio-economic data indicate?

  • The intersection between class and caste is evident in India society. 

  • The persistence of inequality across caste categories in India can be seen in the multidimensional poverty estimates based on the National Family Health 2015- 1016.

  • The poverty ratio among STs was 44.4%, SCs 29.2%, OBCs 24.5% and Others 14.9%.

  • STs, SCs and OBCs taken together comprised around 73% of the Indian population.

  • They accounted for 84% of the country’s poor. 

What do socio-economic data indicate?

  • Over 50% of India’s multidimensionally poor belonged to the OBC category.

  • Multidimensional poverty encompasses the various deprivations experienced by poor people in their daily lives – such as poor health, lack of education, inadequate living standards, disempowerment, poor quality of work, the threat of violence, and living in areas that are environmentally hazardous, among others.

  • The disproportionate concentration of poverty among the STs, SCs, OBCs and Muslims in India have remained stable over time.

What do socio-economic data indicate?

  • The Niti Aayog has not published the caste and religion wise data in its publications.

Education and Employment

  • The pattern of caste-based deprivation can be clearly seen in official data on education and employment indicators. 

  • As per NSS 2017-18, while only 3% of STs, 4% of SCs and 6% of OBCs are graduates.

  • The proportion of graduates in the general category is over 12%. 

  • The proportion of post-graduates within the general category is over 3%,OBCs 1% , SCs and STs, below 1%.

  • In terms of employment status, over 30% of the workforce in the general category had a regular job.

  • The proportion of salaried workers among OBCs and SCs was around 20% and STs just over 12%.

  • This indicates that the informal sector is largely populated with STs, SCs and OBCs while the general category has a disproportionately large share of formal employment. 

  • The Central government is the largest employers in the formal sector, employing over 18.78 lakh.

  • In that , 52.7% of whom belonged to the general category. 

When did caste surveys begin?

  • In 1881 , British government introduced the caste based enumeration, by W.C. Plowden.

  • Independent India  abandoned full caste enumeration on the apprehension that it would strengthen caste divisions and perpetuate the caste system.

  • The report of the Backward Classes Commission headed by B.P. Mandal submitted to the President of India on December 31, 1980, had the following dictum inscribed at the outset: “There is equality only among equals. To equate unequals is to perpetuate inequality.”

When did caste surveys begin?

  • The Mandal Commission report figures, the 1931 census and estimated the combined population of Hindu and non-Hindu OBCs to be 52% of India’s population.

  • The commission had a crucial conclusion, that in favor of socially and educationally backward class, reservation can be made on the ground of Article 15(4).”

  • Article 15(4) of the Constitution enables the State to make special provisions for the advancement of “socially and educationally backward classes of citizens.

When did caste surveys begin?

  • The population share of OBCs was estimated at 52%, only 27% reservation for OBCs in all government services, technical and professional institutions was recommended by the Mandal commission.

  •  In order to keep the overall reservation all together below the 50% ceiling set by the Supreme Court.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Caste Census in India UPSC NOTE
Caste Census in India UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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