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Press Freedom UPSC NOTE

 What is baoli ?

  • A baoli is a stepwell, a type of well with a flight of steps leading down to the water.

  • Baolis are found in many parts of India and Pakistan.

  • These thought to have originated in the 4th or 5th century CE.

Baolis were built for a variety of purposes, including:

  1. Provide drinking water, during the dry season

  2. To provide a place for bathing and ablutions

  3. To serve as community gathering places

  4. To provide shelter from the sun and heat

  5. To be used as pilgrimage sites

What is Baoli ?

Some famous baolis include:

  1. Chand Baori in Abhaneri, Rajasthan

  2. Raniji ki Vav in Patan, Gujarat

  3. Rajon ki Baoli in Delhi

  4. Adalaj Stepwell in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

  5. Panna Meena ka Kund in Amer, Rajasthan

Ghayasuddin Tughlaq


  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320–1325) was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty of India. 

  • He was a Turk by birth, and was originally named Ghazi Malik. 

  • He rose through the ranks of the Delhi Sultanate under Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

  • In 1320, Ghazi Malik defeated the Khilji dynasty and established himself as the new Sultan of Delhi. 

  • He took the name Ghayasuddin Tughlaq, and began a series of reforms to strengthen the sultanate.

The reforms made by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq,

  1. A new system of land revenue administration

  2. A new system of coinage

  3. A new system of weights and measures

  4. A new system of education


  • Nizamuddin Auliya (1238-1325) was an Indian Sunni Muslim scholar, Sufi saint of the Chishti Order.

  •  His predecessors were Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, and Moinuddin Chishti. who were the masters of the Chishti spiritual chain or silsila in the Indian subcontinent.

  • Nizamuddin Auliya was born in Badayun, India. 

  • He was the son of Ahmad Badayuni, a scholar and Sufi. 

  • Nizamuddin Auliya studied under several Sufi masters, including Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, before settling in Delhi in 1272.

Nasiruddin

  • Nasiruddin was the disciple of Nizamuddin.

  • Nasiruddin helps Nizamuddin to managed the incredible feat.

  • Nasiruddin was conferred the title of Roshan Chiragh-e-Dehli. 

  • The Baoli was completed in 1321-22.

Roshan Chiragh-e-Dehli

  • Roshan Chiragh-e-Dehli, or the Illuminated Lamp of Delhi.

  • It is the title given to Nasiruddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi, a 14th-century Sufi saint.

  • He was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya, and later his successor.

  • Nasiruddin Mahmud was born in Ayodhya, India, in 1274. 

  • He was the son of a merchant, and received a good education in Islamic studies. 

  • At the age of 40, he left Ayodhya for Delhi, where he became a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya.

Arab ki Sarai

  • Arabi Ki Sarai is a historic gateway located in the complex of Humayun's Tomb in Delhi.

  • It was built by the Sultan of Delhi, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in the 14th century. 

  • The inn was named after the Arab traders who frequently passed through this route.

  • The Sarai is a huge gateway.

  • It measures 15 meters in height and 20 meters in width. 

  • It is made of red sandstone and has many arches and decorative panels. 

  • The building of the Sarai is an excellent example of Tughlaq architecture.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Press Freedom UPSC NOTE
Press Freedom UPSC NOTE
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