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Caste Survey in TamilNadu UPSC NOTE

 The first and second Backward Classes Commission

  • The First Backward Classes Commission, also known as the Kaka Kalelkar Commission. 

  • Appointed by the GoI in 1953 to identify and examine the problems of the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBCs).

  • To recommend measures for their improvement their livelihood. 

  • The commission submitted its report in 1955.

  •  The report  identified 2,399 SEBCs

  • The commission also recommended reservation in education and employment for the upliftment of SEBCs.

The first and second Backward Classes Commission

  • The Second Backward Classes Commission, also known as the Mandal Commission, 

  • Appointed by the GoI in 1979.

  • To review the implementation of the recommendations of the First Backward Classes Commission. 

  • The commission submitted its report in 1980.

  • The report recommended reservation of 27% of government jobs for SEBCs. 

  • The commission also recommended reservation in educational institutions and financial assistance for SEBC students for the upliftment of SEBCs.

The first and second Backward Classes Commission

  • The recommendations of the Mandal Commission were met with stiff opposition.

  • They argued that reservation was based on caste and violated the principle of equality. 

  •  The Supreme Court of India upheld the recommendations of the Mandal Commission in 1992, and reservation for SEBCs has been in place in India ever since.

  • The First and Second Backward Classes Commissions played a significant role in the development of India's reservation policy. 

  • Reservation has helped to improve the lives of millions of SEBCs in India.

How Second BC Commission come into being

  • Mandal Commission came into being due to a number of factors,

  • The dissatisfaction of SEBCs with the implementation of the recommendations of the Kaka Kalelkar Commission.

  • The pressure from SEBCs for greater representation in government jobs and educational institutions.

  • The growing recognition of the need for social justice and equality in India.

  • In 1977,The Janata Party was a coalition of parties that was committed to social justice and equality

  • In 1979, the Janata Party government appointed a new commission, headed by B.P. Mandal,.

The Mandal Commission report made the following  recommendations,

  1. Reservation of 27% of government jobs for SEBCs.

  2. Reservation of seats in educational institutions for SEBC students.

  3. Financial assistance for SEBC students.

How did the 1992 Supreme Court judgment affect State reservations?

  • The 1992 Supreme Court judgment in the Indra Sawhney v. Union of India case had a significant impact on state reservations in India. 

  • The court upheld the central government's decision to provide 27% reservation for OBCs in government jobs, But it imposed a number of restrictions on state reservations.

  • One of the most important restrictions imposed by the court was the 50% ceiling on total reservations

  • This meant that no state could provide reservations for more than 50% of its government jobs. 

  • The court also ruled that creamy layer exclusions, which exclude the most affluent members of backward classes from reservations, should be applied to state reservations as well.

The SC judgment had the following implications for state reservations. 

  1. States had to reduce their existing reservation quotas. 

  2. States had to implement creamy layer exclusions.

  3. States could no longer provide reservations in promotions.

  • Judgement was challenged by a number of states. However, the court has upheld its judgment in subsequent cases. 

  • As a result, the 50% ceiling on total reservations and the creamy layer exclusions are now in place in all states in India.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Caste Survey in TamilNadu UPSC NOTE
Caste Survey in TamilNadu UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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