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Cholera UPSC NOTE

 Why in News

Vibrio cholerae bacterial strains gained a resistance to multiple  antibiotics responsible for the ongoing Yemen cholera epidemic around 2018.

Cholera

  • Cholera is a bacterial infection.

  • It is a life-threatening infectious disease and a public health hazard.

  • Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

  • There are more than 100 serogroups of known Cholera bacterium

  • O1 and O139 Genomes are known to cause such infection that leads to epidemics and pandemics.

Transmission of Cholera

  • Drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium.

  • Areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

Vaccine for Cholera

  • Currently , three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are available,

  1.  Dukoral, 

  2. Shanchol,  

  3. Euvichol-Plus


Yemen cholera epidemic

  • Broke out in 2016 and it is the largest in modern history.

  •  Antibiotic resistance has become widespread among V. cholerae bacteria since 2018.

  • From the DNA samples collected between 2018 and 2019, researchers found a new plasmid -a small circular DNA molecule.

  • They argue that the emergence of the multidrug-resistant pathogen demonstrates the importance of continuing genomic surveillance of the Yemen cholera outbreak.





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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Cholera UPSC NOTE
Cholera UPSC NOTE
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