Earth Quake UPSC NOTE

 Hindu Kush Mountain Range

  • It’s a vast mountain system that stretches through Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. 

  • It is one of the highest mountain ranges in the world, with many peaks over 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) tall. 

  • The Hindu Kush is also home to some of the world's longest glaciers, including the Wakhan Glacier and the Fedchenko Glacier.

  • The Hindu Kush is a major watershed for Central Asia, and its rivers provide water for irrigation, drinking, and hydroelectric power

Hindu Kush Mountain Range

  • The mountains are also home to a variety of unique plant and animal life, including the snow leopard, the Marco Polo sheep, and the Afghan fir tree.  

  • Today, the Hindu Kush region is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped in the world

  • The region is also plagued by conflict and instability. 

Fault planes

  • A fault plane is the surface along which two blocks of rock have moved relative to each other. Fault planes can be vertical, horizontal, or at any angle in between. 

  • The direction of slip can also be at any angle.

  • Fault planes are the source of earthquakes. 

  • Earthquakes occur when the stress on a fault plane overcomes the friction between the two blocks of rock, causing them to slip suddenly

  • The amount of slip and the type of fault plane determine the magnitude and intensity of an earthquake.

Fault planes

  • There are three main types of fault planes:

  1. Normal faults

  2. Reverse faults

  3. Strike-slip faults

  • Fault planes can be very large, extending for hundreds of kilometers. 

  • They can also be very deep, reaching depths of tens of kilometers. 

  • The largest fault plane in the world is the San Andreas Fault, which is over 1,200 kilometers long and extends to a depth of over 16 kilometers.

Fault planes

  • Fault planes are important for understanding earthquakes and other geological hazards. 

  • By studying fault planes, scientists can learn about the stress field in the crust and the likelihood of future earthquakes. 

  • Fault planes can also be used to map out the structure of the crust and to identify potential sources of groundwater.

Thrust faults

  • A thrust fault is a type of reverse fault in which the fault plane dips at a very low angle, typically less than 30 degrees. 

  • The hanging wall block moves up the fault surface relative to the footwall block. 

  • Thrust faults are often found in mountain belts.

  • They have played a major role in the formation of mountains.

  • Thrust faults can be very large and can extend for hundreds of kilometers

  • For example, the Himalayan Frontal Thrust, which marks the boundary between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, is over 2,500 kilometers long.

  • Thrust faults are important because they can produce large and destructive earthquakes

  • In fact, the largest earthquake ever recorded, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake in Chile, was caused by a thrust fault.

  • Thrust faults can also be important sources of hydrocarbons. 

  • For example, the oil and gas fields of the Middle East are located on a series of thrust faults.

Cause of second quake

  • It is likely that it was caused by the stress release from the first quake. 

  • Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy when tectonic plates move past each other. 

  • This movement can cause the plates to stick together, building up stress over time. 

  • When the stress becomes too great, the plates slip suddenly, releasing energy in the form of an earthquake.

  • In the case of the two quakes in Turkey, it is likely that the first quake caused the plates to move in a way that increased the stress on a nearby fault line. 

  • This increased stress caused the second fault line to slip, releasing energy in the form of a second quake.

  • Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that occur after a larger earthquake

  • They are caused by the stress release from the larger earthquake and can continue for days, weeks, or even months.

  • Earthquakes can be unpredictable and that aftershocks can be just as dangerous as the main earthquake.

  • It is important to note that the exact cause of the second quake is still under investigation. 



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Earth Quake UPSC NOTE
Earth Quake UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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