Mental Health UPSC NOTE


  • The theme of World Mental Health Day 2023 is "Mental health is a universal human right". 

  • This theme is intended to raise awareness of the importance of mental health and to advocate for the rights of people with mental health conditions.

  • Mental health is just as important as physical health.

  • Everyone has the right to access high-quality mental health care. 

  • However, millions of people around the world are denied this right due to stigma, discrimination, and lack of resources.

Informal working force in India

  • India’s informal workforce accounts for more than 90% of the working population.

  • These workers often operate without regulatory protection, work in unsafe working environments, endure long hours. 

  • They have little access to social or financial protections, suffer high uncertainty and deep precarity, and face discrimination 

  • All of which further undermine mental health and limit access to mental health care

  • Gender disparities are also stark.

Informal working force in India

  • Over 95% of India’s working women engaged in informal, low-paying, and precarious employment, 

  • Women employees often without social protection,.

  •  In addition to suffering patriarchal structures and practices in their social and familial spaces.

  • According to the UNDP, unemployment and poor-quality employment have consistently been detrimental to mental health. 

Informal working force in India

  • The interviewed 9,316 youth aged between 15 to 34 years across 18 States in India, has shown that they are highly susceptible to negative emotions.

  • Youth unemployment is one of the highest in India 

  • The State of Inequality in India Report 2022 observes that the unemployment rate actually increases with educational levels.

  •  Particularly for educated young women who show an unemployment rate of 42%. 

  • The half of India’s population is of working age and projected to remain so for two decades.

Policy Recommendations

  • Informal workers, despite their significant contribution to national income, are perennially exposed to various economic, physical, and mental vulnerabilities. 

  • India’s budgetary allocation for mental health, has over-focused on the digital mental health programme. 

  • Currently under 1% of the total health budget.

  •  As the World Mental Health Report 2022 observed, addressing mental health involves strengthening community-based care, and people-centred, recovery-oriented and human rights-oriented care. 

Policy Recommendations

  • There is an urgent need for proactive policies to improve mental health recognition and action

  • This is critical in upholding the basic human right to good health, including mental health, and in advancing to the SDGs.

  •  Especially SDG 3 on ‘good health and well-being’ and SDG 8 on ‘decent work for all/economic growth’.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Mental Health UPSC NOTE
Mental Health UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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