Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE

 Women's Reservation in India

  • 106th Amendment Act — That reserves 1/3rd  of the total seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies for women.

  • This law comes in the 30th anniversary of the constitutional reforms that reserved one-third of seats in panchayats and municipalities for women.

  • 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments created panchayats and municipalities .

  • It mandated a minimum of one-third of seats and office to be reserved for women.

  • It also mandated reservation for SC, ST and OBC based on their percentage in population.

73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments

  • Landmark pieces of legislation that have transformed local governance in India.

  • Passed in 1992.

  • Established Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) as institutions of self-government, with elected representatives and a wide range of powers and functions.

  • The 73rd Amendment deals with PRIs, which are three-tier institutions at the village, block, and district levels.

  • The 74th Amendment deals with ULBs, such as municipal corporations, municipal councils, and nagar panchayats.

Key features 

  • PRIs and ULBs has  constitutional status, which means that they are not at the mercy of state governments.

  • PRIs and ULBs have elected representatives, which ensures that they are accountable to the people they serve.

  •  PRIs and ULBs have a wide range of powers and functions, including planning and development, education, health, and sanitation.

  •  The amendments have mandated reservation for women and SC and STs in PRIs and ULBs.

Impact of Reservations

  •  One survey conducted in 2004 in West Bengal and Rajasthan found that women leaders invest more in public goods and ensure increased women’s participation in panchayat meetings.

  • A more expansive study in 2011 reaffirmed, the finding that women-led panchayats made higher investments in public services like drinking water, education, and roads. 

  •  A 2010 paper by Pranab Bardhan and others found that women’s reservations worsened the targeting of welfare programmes for SC/ST households and provided no improvement for female-headed households.

Impact of Reservations

  • In 2008 paper by Vijayendra Rao and Radu Ban found that women leaders perform no differently than their male counterparts in south India.

  • A 2020 paper by Alexander Lee and Varun Karekurve-Ramachandra examining reservations in Delhi found that constituencies reserved for women are less likely to elect OBC women and more likely to elect upper-caste women.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE
Women’s Reservation Bill UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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