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Haemoglobin UPSC NOTE


  • Hemoglobin (Hb) is a globular protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.

  • It takes carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. 

  • It is made up of four globin protein subunits and four heme prosthetic groups. 

  • Each heme group contains an iron atom, which is essential for binding oxygen.

  • Hemoglobin is responsible for the red color of blood

  • When hemoglobin is fully saturated with oxygen, it is called oxyhemoglobin and has a bright red color. 

  • When hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues, it is called deoxyhemoglobin and has a purplish blue color.

What is Chondrocytes

  • Chondrocytes are the cells that make up cartilage

  • They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix.

  •  Which is the material that gives cartilage its strength and flexibility. 

  • Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found in joints, between vertebrae, and in other parts of the body. 

  • It acts as a cushion and shock absorber, and it helps to reduce friction between bones and other tissues.

  • Chondrocytes are round or polygonal cells with a large nucleus. 

  • They are surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm and a thick extracellular matrix

  • The extracellular matrix is made up of collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other molecules.

Recent Findings

  • Chondrocytes can be reprogrammed into stem cells. 

  • This discovery could lead to new ways to treat cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis.

  • Chondrocytes are regulated by a variety of signaling molecules, including growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. 

  • Understanding how these signaling molecules work could lead to new treatments for cartilage diseases.

  • Chondrocytes are sensitive to mechanical stress

  • Excessive mechanical loading can damage chondrocytes and lead to the development of osteoarthritis.

  • Chondrocytes are involved in the immune response. 

  • They can produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which can attract immune cells to the joint. 

  • This could contribute to the development of inflammatory arthritis.

Haemoglobin Bodies (Hedy)

  • Haemoglobin bodies, also known as Heinz bodies

  • Inclusions of denatured hemoglobin that can be found in red blood cells

  • They are typically formed when red blood cells are exposed to oxidative stress, such as that caused by free radicals, certain medications, or certain diseases, such as malaria.

  • Haemoglobin bodies can be seen as small, basophilic inclusions in red blood cells

  • They can also be seen as dark inclusions on supravital staining with brilliant cresyl blue.

Hedy can cause a number of problems, including:

  1. Anemia: Haemoglobin bodies can lead to anemia by decreasing the number of functional red blood cells.

  2. Hemolysis: Haemoglobin bodies can make red blood cells more susceptible to hemolysis, which is the breakdown of red blood cells.

  3. Thrombosis: Haemoglobin bodies can also promote thrombosis, which is the formation of blood clots.

Hedy has a number of potential implications, both positive and negative.

  • On the positive side, Hedy could help to make AI more accessible and user-friendly. 

  • Hedy could make it possible for people with no prior experience with AI to use it to solve problems and create new things

  • Hedy could also help to make AI more transparent and accountable. 

  • By providing a way to visualize and understand how AI works.

  • Hedy could help people to identify and address potential biases and ethical concerns

  • On the negative side, Hedy could be used to create harmful or deceptive AI applications. 

  • For example, Hedy could be used to create deepfakes or other forms of synthetic media that could be used to spread misinformation.

  • Hedy could also be used to create AI systems that are biased against certain groups of people.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Haemoglobin UPSC NOTE
Haemoglobin UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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