India - Maritime UPSC NOTE

 Evolving challenges in the maritime domain 

  • In recent years, hard security challenges in the maritime domain have acquired a new, menacing dimension

  • Whether with Ukraine’s growing use of asymmetrical tactics against Russia in the Black Sea or China’s deployment of maritime militias in the South China Sea, there is an unmistakable element of improvisation. 

  • The radical new tactics at sea involve the use of grey-zone warfare, land attack missiles, and combat drones.

  • The demand for maritime security in recent years has come from states facing unconventional security threats, such as illegal fishing, natural disasters, marine pollution, human and drug trafficking, and the impact of climate change.

  • These are difficult to fight using only military means. 

  • States must instead be prepared to commit capital, resources, and specialist personnel over prolonged periods to meet security needs.

  • Throughout its G20 presidency, India has sought to emphasise the concerns of the Global South in discussions to find solutions to the most pressing issues in the maritime domain. 

  • Yet, there is no functioning template to fight non-traditional threats at sea

  • Sustainable development goals in the littorals remain unrealised, as voices from littoral states in Asia, Africa, and the Southern Pacific are ignored by the developed countries.

  • There is a widespread perception in the Global South that the zero-sum competition among powerful nations in the Indo-Pacific has been to the detriment of the developing world. 

  • The contemporary security agenda is an interconnected set of objectives involving national, environmental, economic, and human security goals

  • The cross-jurisdictional linkages between these diverse areas make them challenging to manage.

  • This phenomenon is particularly pronounced in the Global South, which finds itself especially challenged in meeting the objectives of marine governance. 

  • What is more, rising sea levels, marine pollution, climate change, and natural disasters have had a disproportionate impact on less developed states, placing them in a position of vulnerability.

New threats in the maritime domain
  • littoral states in Asia and Africa have unequal law-enforcement capabilities and lack the security coordination required to jointly combat maritime threats. 

  • Many have varying security priorities and are not always willing to leverage partner capabilities to combat threats such as piracy, armed robbery, and maritime terrorism. 

  • Some even resist maritime cooperation with partner nations in a bid to reduce reliance on foreign agencies. 

  • They are willing to share information with such states, but only enough to advance common minimum security goals.

India's Maritime Vision 2030

  • Maritime security is more than a matter of hard military action and law enforcement

  • Sea power is increasingly about generating prosperity and meeting the aspirations of the people. 

  • India’s Maritime Vision 2030 sets out a creative model. 

  • This 10-year blueprint for the maritime sector envisages the development of ports, shipping, and inland waterways as a way of generating growth and livelihoods. 

  • Dhaka’s inaugural official document on the Indo-Pacific details guiding principles and objectives that demonstrate a developmental approach to maritime security, focused on the provisioning of goods and services, and the protection of marine resources. 

  • The talk in Africa, too, is about a thriving Blue Economy and a secure maritime domain.

  • The sharp uptick in illegal unreported and unregulated fishing has been aided by faulty policies that encourage destructive fishing methods such as bottom trawling and seine fishing. 

  • Among the proposals that set out ways to deal with maritime challenges is India’s Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative. 

  • It rests on seven pillars including maritime ecology, marine resources, capacity building, disaster risk reduction, and maritime connectivity.

  • It acknowledges that countries need collective solutions to their common problems, especially since they remain economically interdependent. 

  • It is to India’s credit that the initiative has the support of major Indo-Pacific states, many from the West.

India's Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative

  • The IPOI is a collaborative approach among stakeholders to address shared challenges in the Indo-Pacific region

It is based on the seven pillars,

  1. Maritime security

  2. Maritime economy

  3. Maritime ecology

  4. Maritime resources

  5. Maritime capacity building

  6. Disaster risk reduction and resilience

  7. Science, technology and innovation

  • The IPOI is a significant initiative for India, as it reflects its growing role and interests in the Indo-Pacific region

  • The initiative is also aligned with India's vision for a "free, open, inclusive and prosperous" Indo-Pacific.

  • The IPOI has been welcomed by many countries in the region, and India has already partnered with a number of countries to implement specific initiatives under the IPOI framework. 

  • India has partnered with Australia to launch the Australia-India Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative Partnership (AIIPOIP), which focuses on building areas of practical cooperation between the two countries and the Indo-Pacific

in the fields of combating marine plastic waste and marine ecology.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India - Maritime UPSC NOTE
India - Maritime UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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