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One Horned Rhinos UPSC NOTE

 One-horned rhinos – details and habitat

Basic Details

  • Scientific Name: Rhinoceros unicornis

  • Common Names: Indian rhinoceros, greater one-horned rhinoceros, great Indian rhinoceros

  • Size: Height: 5.75 - 6.5 feet; Length: 10- 12.5 feet;

  • Weight4,000-6,000 pounds

  • Distinguishing Feature: Single black horn about 8-25 inches long

  • Diet: Primarily graze on grasses, but also consume leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruit, and aquatic plants

  • Social Structure: Solitary, except when adult males or rhinos nearing adulthood gather at wallows or to graze

  • Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Habitat

  • Preferred Habitat: Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

  • Location: India and Nepal, particularly in the foothills of the Himalayas

  • Specific Areas: Indo-Nepal Terai, northern parts of West Bengal, and Assam

  • Habitat Requirements: Grasslands and wetlands, access to water, mineral licks

Additional Notes

  • One-horned rhinos are the fourth largest land animal.

  • They play an important role in their ecosystem by dispersing seeds and maintaining healthy grasslands.

  • They are threatened by poaching for their horns, which are used in traditional medicine.

Pobitora Wildlife sanctuary

  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for majestic Indian rhinoceros

  • Nestled in the lush green expanse of Assam, India.

  • This sanctuary is home to a significant population of these gentle giants. 

  • Established in 1987, an area of 38.85 SqKm.

  • A diverse habitat of grasslands, wetlands, and scattered hills. 

  • This unique ecosystem provides an ideal environment for a remarkable array of flora and fauna.

  • The sanctuary holds the distinction of having the highest density of Indian rhinoceroses in the world

  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is also home to a rich diversity of Elephants, leopards, wild boars, and barking deer are among the larger mammals that can be spotted here. 

  • The sanctuary also serves as a crucial breeding ground for a variety of reptiles and birds, including the Great Indian Bustard, one of the world's heaviest flying birds.

  • The sanctuary's natural beauty is enhanced by the presence of the mighty Brahmaputra River, which flows along its southern boundary

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