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Opium production in India UPSC NOTE


  • In India, there are about 1 lakh farmers across 22 districts in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh with a licence to cultivate opium

  • The majority of them are from three districts that border Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan — Mandsaur, Neemuch, and Chittorgarh

  • Together, these districts produce 80% of India’s opium.

  • Opium is obtained by slightly incising the seed capsules of the poppy after the plant’s flower petals have fallen. 

  • Two types of narcotic raw materials can be produced from opium poppy: opium gum (latex) and the concentrate of poppy straw (CPS). 

  • Until recently, only opium gum, a milky substance, was produced in India. 

  • Opium contains morphine, which is known to relieve chronic pain and is used mostly by the pharmaceutical industry to produce medicines.

  • On the flip side, it also produces opioids like heroin.

  • Because it is an addictive substance that can cause mental clouding and hallucinations, opium production is highly regulated in India. 

  • The gum is procured solely by the Central Bureau of Narcotics, which functions under the Union Finance Ministry.

Major states in opium Production

  • Madhya Pradesh: The Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of opium in India, accounting for over 50% of the country's total output. The Neemuch district is also a significant producer.

  • Rajasthan: The Kota, Baran, Jhalawar, Chittorgarh, and Udaipur districts in Rajasthan are all major producers of opium.

  • Uttar Pradesh: The Barabanki, Faizabad, Ghazipur, Mau, Lucknow, Raibareilly, Bareilly, Shahjahanpur, and Budaun districts in Uttar Pradesh are all significant producers of opium.

Is it legal?

  • Yes, opium cultivation is legal in India

  • Its only under a license issued by the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN). 

  • The CBN is responsible for regulating the cultivation, production, and distribution of opium in India. 

  • Opium is a highly controlled substance, and the Indian government takes strict measures to prevent its diversion to illicit markets.

  • The CBN issues licenses to cultivators in these states.

  • The Indian government is committed to preventing the diversion of opium to illicit markets

  • The CBN works closely with law enforcement agencies to crack down on opium trafficking

  • India is also a party to the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which sets international standards for the control of opium.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Opium production in India UPSC NOTE
Opium production in India UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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