Download Learnerz IAS app from the Play Store now! Download



Outcome of COP - 28 UPSC NOTE

 Global stocktake at Conference of Parties?

  • This year’s COP summit saw the first global stocktake (GST). 

  • According to the UNFCCC, the GST “enables countries and other stakeholders to see where they are collectively making progress towards meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement.

  • The decision of countries’ at COP-28 to transition away from fossil fuels was coupled with the ambition to triple renewable energy capacity by 2030

  • More than 20 countries also pledged to triple their nuclear energy capacity

  • The transition from fossil fuels is restricted to energy systems.

  • They can continue to be used in the plastics, transport, and agriculture sectors. 

  • The declaration also refers to ‘transitional fuels’, such as natural gas, for ensuring energy security. 

  • But this falls short of true climate justice as it allows industries to continue operating in the business-as-usual mode.

  • While the declaration called for accelerated climate mitigation, it alluded to unproven and risky technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon removal.

  • The former enables users of fossil fuels to prevent their emissions from entering the atmosphere by capturing the emissions at the source and storing them permanently underground.

Novel mechanisms introduced with respect to accelerating green finance?

  • The financial segment of the GST implementation framework explicitly recognises the responsibility of developed nations to take the lead in climate finance. 

  • There is also a reference to the private sector’s role in addressing financial shortfalls and an imperative to supplement grant-oriented, 

concessional finance to enable equitable transition in developing countries

  • Specific information regarding the entities obligated to furnish this grant based finance is lacking.

  • The COP-28 also witnessed the establishment of innovative global green-finance mechanisms to support developing nations in their transition to sustainable practices. 

  • The Green Climate Fund received fresh support of $3.5 billion, allowing it to finance adaptation and mitigation projects in vulnerable regions.

  • An additional $188 million was pledged to the Adaptation Fund. 

  • New partnerships between public and private sectors were forged to mobilise investments in renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, and infrastructure. 

  • The COP-28 Presidency also introduced ALTÉRRA, an investment initiative with an ambitious goal to globally mobilise an unprecedented sum of $250 billion by 2030.

  • Despite these efforts, the available funds fall well short of the $194-366 billion annual funding requirement for adaptation, as estimated by the United Nations.

Why did India not sign the health and methane reduction declarations?

  • COP- 28 recognises the growing health impacts of climate change and acknowledges the benefits of climate action.

  •  It includes a reduction in air pollution and lowering the cost of healthcare

  • The declaration, signed by 123 countries, has collectively committed $1 billion to address the growing climate-health crisis. 

  • India didn’t sign this declaration because reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the health sector would mean reduction in emissions from gases used for cooling.

  •  As India’s healthcare infrastructure is still growing, such a commitment could compromise the healthcare requirements of a growing population, particularly rural.

  • The Global Methane Pledge launched at COP-26 received renewed attention at COP-28.

  • The Climate and Clean Air Coalition becoming the new secretariat and partners of the pledge announcing more than $1 billion in new grants for funding projects to reduce methane emissions from the agriculture, waste, and gas sectors. 

  • More than 150 countries signed the pledge to reduce methane pollution

  • India isn’t a signatory to this pledge because it shifts focus from carbon dioxide to methane, a GHG with a lower lifetime.

  • Also, methane emissions in India are primarily from rice cultivation and enteric fermentation (livestock rearing), which support the livelihoods of small and marginal farmers.



Amritsar,1,April 2024,301,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,145,February 2024,228,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,151,Govt Schemes,2,GS 2,1,GS1,6,GS2,31,GS3,15,GST,1,History,7,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,112,Indian History,2,Indian Polity,129,International Organisation,12,International Relations,93,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,June 2024,140,March 2024,238,May 2022,17,May 2024,330,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,66,Science and Technology,86,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Outcome of COP - 28 UPSC NOTE
Outcome of COP - 28 UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content