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Hero stone (veera kallu) UPSC NOTE

 Why in News

  • A hero stone (veera kallu) with an inscription in Kannada script used during 15-16th century has been found at Ulturu-Kattemane, near Gulladi in Kundapur Taluk of Udupi district in Karnataka.

Historical significance of the hero stone

  • A hero stone, also known as a vīragallu in Kannada or naṭukal in Tamil

  • These stones are commemorative monuments erected in honor of warriors who died in battle.

  • They were common throughout South India from the 4th to the 18th centuries, and can be found in large numbers in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

  • The specific hero stone in the image you sent is difficult to identify without more information.

  • However, I can tell you some general things about the historical significance of these stones.

  • They provide valuable insights into social and military history

  • The inscriptions on hero stones often detail the name of the deceased warrior, the circumstances of their death, and the battle in which they fought. 

  • This information can help us to reconstruct the history of warfare in South India, as well as the social organization of different communities.

  • They reflect the cultural values of the time

  • Hero stones often depict the deceased warrior in a heroic pose, armed with weapons and sometimes riding a horse. 

  • This imagery reflects the warrior ethos of South Indian societies, which valued bravery, loyalty, and sacrifice.

  • They serve as a form of ancestor worship. 

  • Hero stones were often erected near the place where the warrior died, and they were sometimes treated as sacred objects

  • People would make offerings to the stones and pray to the spirits of the deceased warriors.

Hoysala Empire

  • Hoysalas were feudatories of chalukyas of Kalyana.

  • Dwarasamudra(Halebeedu) was their capital.

  • Sala was the founder of this dynasty.

  • He was succeeded by Vinayaditya and Balalla 1.

  • Vishnuvardhana(Bittideva) was greatest in Hoysala dynasty.

  • He completely routed Cholas from Gangavadi in battle of Talakadu, for this he got the title Talkadugonda.

  • In commemoration of this victory he built kirtinarayana temple at Talakadu and Chennakesavar temple at Beluru.

Religion:

  • Hoysalas patronized Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism.

  • Vishnuvardhana followed Jainism.

  • He was influenced by Sri Ramanujacharya and converted into srivaishnavism.

  • Remember we discussed in Cholas history that Ramajunacharya left srirangam in Tamil nadu and settled in Melukote, Karnataka.

Literature:

  • Kannada and Sanskrit literature developed during this period.

  • Important literary works in Kannada are

    • Harihara-

    • Raghavanka- Harishchandracharite

    • Nemichandra- leelavati Prabhanda

    • Janna-

Art and Architecture:

  • Hoysalas combined Vesara and Dravida style and developed new Hoysala style.

  • Important features of this style are

    • Star shaped platform

    • The jagati around the temple is the open pradakshinapatha.

    • Polished pillar with variety of designs.

    • Elaborate carvings and beautifully carved madanika figures.

  • Vimana(shikara) in pyramidical shape.

  • Most of their temples in Bhumija style. In this style miniature shikara is carved on the outerwall of the temple.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Hero stone (veera kallu) UPSC NOTE
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