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Hirakud dam UPSC NOTE

 

  • Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, close to Sambalpur city in Odisha in India.

  • Type: It is a composite structure of earth, concrete and masonry. It is the longest major earthen dam in India.

  • Background: It is one of the first major multipurpose river valley projects started after India's independence and began operations in 1957.

  • With successful irrigation provided by the dam, Sambalpur is called the rice bowl of Odisha

  • It is one of India's first multifunctional projects following independence.

  • The building began in 1948 and was finished in 1953.

  • It was created to control the flow of the Mahanadi River and manage the region's recurring flood problem.

  • The dam was inaugurated in 1957 by then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

Why in News

  • The Odisha government appointed a task force to solve the State’s complex problems with pattas, some dating back over a century

  • Satyasundar Barik untangles some of the 30 terrain troubles that people faced and what it

means to them to have deeds registered in their names now.

  • In one of India’s first major post-independence multipurpose river valley projects.

  • The government was about to impound the Hirakud reservoir, formed as a result of damming the Mahanadi river

  • Duanmunda was one of the 19 villages in the district that were majorly hit.

What is Nazul land, Poramboke land, Abadi (basti) land and Chaka land mentoned in the article

  • Nazul land stands for escheated properties, seized after the first war of independence in 1857.

  • Often managed directly by the government.

  • Occasionally used for public purposes or leased for 30 years in areas such as Sambalpur, Jharsuguda, Kesinga, Bhawanipatana, Junagarh, and other urban zones.

  • Poramboke land, denoting uncultivated lands in villages reserved for communal purposes despite being in possession of individuals for generations.

  • It is a result of the State’s Tamil association.

  • These can be reinstated to individuals.

  • Abadi (basti) land comes under Section 71 of the Central Provinces Land Revenue Act, 1917

  • Settlement officers in inhabited villages determine reserved land for residents or ancillary purposes, observed in Sambalpur, Jharsuguda, Baragarh, and Nuapada.

  • Chaka land, a result of consolidation of agricultural land in eight districts under the Odisha Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation of Land Act, 1972, will also see changes. 

  • This land could not be sold in parts but only as a whole

  • Recognising the increasing demand for land for housing and other development, the government amended the law in 2023.


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