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Malaria Vaccine UPSC NOTE

 Which is the first country in the world to include the vaccine in routine immunisation programmes for children?

  • Malaria is one of the biggest killers of children under five across the world and according to WHO data, more than 30 countries have areas with moderate to high malaria transmission.

  • Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bite of the infected female Anopheles mosquito. 

  • It is preventable and curable.

  • In 2022, nearly half of the world’s population was at risk of malaria

  • According to the WHO’s World Malaria Report 2023, while Africa bears the highest malaria burden.

  • Accounting for 94% of cases and 95% of global malaria deaths in 2022.

  • India in 2022, accounted for a staggering 66% of malaria cases in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

  • India and Indonesia accounted for about 94% of all malaria deaths in the WHO South-East Asia Region. 

  • Despite a 55% reduction in cases since 2015.

  • India remains a significant contributor to the global malaria burden

  • The Health Ministry said that over the past 15 years, India has made progress in reducing its malaria burden.

  • It has a vision for a malaria-free country by 2027 and elimination by 2030.

What other countries are planning similar programmes?

  • On January 22, Cameroon in Africa became the first country in the world to launch the RTS.

  • Malaria vaccine for children into its routine national immunisation services. 

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the rollout follows a malaria vaccine pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi, as

efforts gather pace to scale up vaccination against the disease in high risk areas. 

  • Twenty countries aim to roll out the programme this year, according to GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, and other outfits which aim to provide equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries.

Who is manufacturing the vaccine?

  • The current rollout is part of a UNICEF initiative where the contract for the first-ever supply of a malaria vaccine was given to British multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company GSK with a value of up to $170 million.

  • This, it said, would lead to 18 million doses of the vaccine — RTS,S/AS01 — being available over the next three years. 

  • UNICEF adds that the RTS,S malaria vaccine is the result of 35 years of research and development and is the first-ever vaccine against a parasitic disease. 

  • The vaccine acts against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite globally.

  • Meanwhile, the anticipated rollout of a second jab — R21 — developed by Oxford University.

  • It is expected to significantly increase the number of doses available for use

1. Targeted interventions:

  • High-burden areas: Focus on states with high malaria prevalence, like Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and parts of Northeast India.

  • Implement intensive vector control measures like indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in these regions. 

  • Early diagnosis and treatment: Ensure prompt diagnosis through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for all confirmed cases. 

  • Strengthen community awareness and encourage prompt healthcare seeking for fever symptoms.

2.Strengthening healthcare infrastructure:

  • Accessibility: Bridge the gap in healthcare access, particularly in remote areas

  • Train and equip healthcare workers in malaria diagnosis, treatment, and case management protocols. 

  • Surveillance and data management: Enhance malaria surveillance systems for effective monitoring and evaluation

  • Utilize data to identify transmission hotspots, track drug resistance patterns, and tailor interventions accordingly.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Malaria Vaccine UPSC NOTE
Malaria Vaccine UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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