Kangla Fort UPSC NOTE

 Complex and concerning event in Manipur, India, involving an armed militia

  • The six-points oath called upon the Centre to do the following: 

  • Abrogate the tripartite Suspension of Agreement (SoO) that it signed with the State and Kuki-Zomi-Hmar militants since 2008; 

  • Implement the National Register of Citizens but using 1951 as the base year.

  • Construct a border-fence across the India-Myanmar border.

  • Replace the Assam Rifles with other central paramilitary forces

  • Delete ‘Kuki’ from the Scheduled Tribe list, and relocate ‘Kuki refugees’ in Manipur to Mizoram.

  • If these were implemented, they would not only further expose the vulnerability of the Kuki-Zomi-Hmar groups but would also effectively erase their long-standing protective discrimination benefits.

  • This, and the fact that much of the arms and ammunition continue to be in the hands of armed militants across the divide, continue to be a key structural cause of this violence.

Arambai Tenggol oath-taking event

  • The legislators lost Tagore’s dream of ‘clear stream of reason’ and a fearless mind which should have animated their public action even as they allowed themselves to be consumed by the burning passion to protect the interests of the ‘Sanamahi’ and Meitei ‘community’. 

  • That this reflection and reasoned public action were missing from the legislators’ public action became apparent as the six-points oath failed to mention ‘disarmament’, which was one of the

four resolutions passed earlier by the Assembly.

  • This is glaring given that almost half of the 6,000 automatic rifles and over five lakh rounds of live ammunitions from various police armouries.

  •  These were handed over to ragtag mobs are reportedly still with the Arambai Tenggol, the armed militia under whose diktat and supervision this oath-taking event was held.


  • The extensive reports of Arambais being involved in violent attacks against several Kuki-Zomi-Hmar villages.

  • The legislators’ decision to publicly partake in the Arambais agenda only reinforces the partisan image and the role of the Meitei legislators in Manipur’s violence

  • There may have been applause following the Arambai Tenggol’s triumphant shout of ‘Manipur na yai phare. (Manipur has done well’).

  • Kangla as they retreated to their camps in motor cavalcades after this event.

  • But far from securing the interests of the Meiteis and protecting Manipur’s territorial integrity.

  • There are signs of a sense of insecurity. 

  • If one is to go by the hostile responses on social media, this event has also sharpened the emotional, demographic and territorial divide between the Kuki-Zomi-Hmar and Meitei.

Kangla Fort

  • Kangla Fort is one of the most important historic and archaeological site of Manipur located in the heart of the capital city Imphal.

  • It had served as tradition seat of past Meetei rulers of Manipur till 1891.

  • The old Govindajee Temple is the largest Hindu, Vaishnav temple in Imphal city in Manipur.

  • It is located next to Kangla Fort, palace of the former rulers of the then Manipur Kingdom.

  • Its outer and inner moat and other relics are perfect reflections of the rich art and architectural heritage of Manipur.




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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Kangla Fort UPSC NOTE
Kangla Fort UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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