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 Why in News?

  • A classical computer is a collection of information storage units called bits. 

  • These physical devices have two states each, denoted 0 and 1. 

  • Any computation that a computer performs is essentially the result of the manipulation of the states of bits.

  • Similarly, a qubit is a physical system with two quantum states, and it is the fundamental physical component of a quantum computer. 

  • A qubit can exist in one of the two states or — unlike classical computers — a superposed state with contributions from both states.

  • This superposition is a quantum feature that the bits in conventional computers don’t exhibit.

  • Superposed states, also known as coherent superpositions, are important in quantum information-processing protocols

  • However, superpositions are fragile. 

  • The fragility arises out of the interaction between the qubit and other systems

  • The more the number of interaction channels, the faster the superposition “decoheres” and the qubit ends up in one of the two states.

  • In the realm of quantum computing, a qubit (short for quantum bit) serves as the fundamental unit of information, similar to how a bit functions in traditional computers.

  • Regular computers rely on bits, which can hold either a 0 or a 1, akin to a switch being either on or off. 

  • Qubits, on the other hand, leverage the principles of quantum mechanics to exist in a state called superposition, enabling them to be both 0 and 1 simultaneously.

  • This unique ability of qubits allows them to explore a vast number of possibilities concurrently, granting them the potential to tackle problems that are intractable for classical computers.

  • Qubits can be implemented using various physical systems, such as the:

    1. Spin of an electron (up or down)

    2. Polarization of a photon (horizontal or vertical)

    3. Energy levels of an atom (excited or ground state)



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Qubit UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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