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Rheumatoid Arthritis UPSC NOTE

 What is Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • It is a chronic, autoimmune condition that mostly affects the joints

  • Scientists have not yet understood why an autoimmune condition occurs, allowing the immune system that protects the body, to attack itself

  • A patient experiences pain, swelling of joints and loss of function and mobility as a result of stiffness. 

  • As can be expected, this is likely to significantly lower a patient’s quality of life

  • As per the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, of the National Institutes of Health, U.S., rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of the joints, and damages the tissue that covers the ends of the bones in a joint. 

  • It often occurs in a symmetrical pattern, meaning that if one knee or hand has the condition, the other hand or knee is also often affected

  • Fatigue, occasional fevers, and a loss of appetite are to be expected, and there is a possibility that it may cause medical problems outside of the joints including in the heart, lungs, blood nerves, eyes and skin.

Anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs)

  • Anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are a specific type of autoantibody, meaning they are antibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target the body's own tissues

  • In the case of ACPAs, they target proteins that have undergone a chemical modification called citrullination.

  • Autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins.

  • Can contribute to the inflammatory process in certain autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  • Through a blood test called an anti-CCP antibody test.

  • They are highly specific for RA and can be helpful in diagnosis, especially in early stages of the disease.

  • Citrullination is a natural chemical reaction that converts the amino acid arginine into citrulline in proteins.

  • This modification can occur due to various factors, including inflammation and cell death.

  • While generally harmless, citrullinated proteins can sometimes be misidentified as foreign by the immune system, leading to the production of ACPAs.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Rheumatoid Arthritis UPSC NOTE
Rheumatoid Arthritis UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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