• A phase-3 trial in children aged between nine months and 12 years carried out in Malawi, Africa.

  • It is a typhoid fever-endemic setting, has shown that efficacy of the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech’s conjugate typhoid toxoid vaccine — Typbar — lasts for at least four years.

  • The efficacy of the vaccine was seen in children of all age groups studied.

  • Children were vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine during the period February to September 2018.

  • In 2019, there were an estimated 9·24 million typhoid cases and 1,10,000 deaths across the world. 

  • The majority of the typhoid cases and deaths in 2019 occurred in South-East Asia and Africa.

  • 6·1 typhoid infections per 1,000 vaccinated children, corresponding to a number needed to vaccinate 163 to prevent one case of typhoid fever”.

  • The estimated cumulative vaccine efficacy was found to be 83·4% after one year, 80·7% after two years, 80·1% after three years, 77·1% after four years, and 78·3% after 4·61 years (the longest follow-up observed) following vaccination.

  • Currently, there are two conjugated typhoid vaccines —the Typbar TCV typhoid vaccine manufactured byBharat Biotech that received WHO prequalification in 2017, and Biological E’s Vi-CRM197 conjugated typhoid vaccine, which received WHO prequalification in 2020.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Typbar UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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