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Fruit Fly UPSC NOTE

 What is parthenogenesis?

  • Parthenogenesis is a way of reproduction where an embryo develops from an egg without fertilization. 

  • It's a type of asexual reproduction, but technically a bit more complex

  • Without fertilization: Unlike sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis doesn't require a sperm to fertilize the egg. The egg develops on its own.

  • In animals: The egg cell develops into an embryo without needing sperm

  • This can result in offspring that are genetic clones of the mother.

  • In plants: Parthenogenesis can be part of a larger process called apomixis.

  • Types of parthenogenesis

    • Obligate parthenogenesis: This is when a species only reproduces this way.

    • Facultative parthenogenesis: Here, a species can reproduce sexually or through parthenogenesis.

  • What is special about “Drosophila mangebeirai”

  • The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has been among the favourite organisms of genetics researchers for more than a hundred years.

  • Many years of intense research with these diminutive creatures have led to many breakthroughs in our understanding of biology and evolution.

  • Recently, researchers from Cambridge University and the California Institute of Technology reported yet another such breakthrough. 

  • They were able to ‘engineer’ a sexually reproducing fruit-fly species to reproduce asexually.

  •  Its demonstrating the profound biological consequences of relatively minor genetic manipulation

  • The first study that reported this significant feat was published in July 2023; a follow-up study to it was published in the February 2024 issue of Heredity.

Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) – basic details

  • The fruit fly, also known by its scientific name Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Its a tiny insect commonly found near ripening fruits

  • It's a popular model organism used in scientific research due to its short life cycle, ease of breeding, and relatively simple genetics.

Here are some basic details about the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster):

  • Physical Appearance:

    • Small size: Adults are typically 2-4 mm long and weigh about 1 mg. Females are slightly larger than males.

    • Body: Three main body segments (head, thorax, and abdomen) with a single pair of wings and three pairs of legs.

    • Color: Yellowish-brown body with red eyes and black stripes on the abdomen.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Fruit Fly UPSC NOTE
Fruit Fly UPSC NOTE
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