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PQ3 Protocol UPSC NOTE

 What is the PQ3 protocol, and how does it work?

  • Currently, most messaging apps have standard encryption methods which use public and private keys to securely deliver messages

  • There are two encryption methods

  • In the public key encryption method, a user’s message is encrypted by the public key before transmission and then the private key is used to decrypt messages

  • In the private key method, while both keys are required, they are basically the same, and both the sender and the recipient are allowed to encrypt or decrypt the message.

  • Apple’s PQ3 protocol uses a hybrid design combining traditional encryption methods with post-quantum encryption both during the initial key establishment between devices and during rekeying, which essentially rechecks the cryptographic keys between devices to ensure continued protection.

  • Under the PQ3 protocol each device generates public keys locally and then transmits them to Apple servers as part of the iMessage registration process using the Module Lattice-based Key Encapsulation Mechanism or ML-KEM

  • This enables the sender device to get the receiver device’s public keys and generate post-quantum encryption keys for the first message

  • Apple has also included a periodic post-quantum rekeying mechanism within the conversation which is capable of self-healing from key compromise and safeguarding future messages.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: PQ3 Protocol UPSC NOTE
PQ3 Protocol UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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