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 Why in News

  • The current process of producing antivenom is outdated, involving injecting large animals with snake venom and collecting the animals’ blood for the antibodies it produces. 

  • A group of scientists sidestepped animals and used human antibodies instead, eventually finding the potent 95Mat5

What is 95Mat5?

  • 95Mat5 is a universal antivenom developed to neutralize the toxins present in snake venoms.

Development Process:

  • The scientists first synthesized variants of a toxin called long-chain 3FTxs (3FTx-L), which are found in the venoms of various snakes, including cobras, kraits, mambas, and monocled cobras.

  • They then screened billions of human antibodies expressed on the surface of yeast cells to find antibodies that bound best to the synthesized toxins.

  • After multiple rounds of screening, they identified a shortlist of antibodies that broadly reacted with most of the 3FTx variants used in the study.

  • The selected antibodies were further tested in vitro in human cells to determine which ones could best neutralize the toxins.

Mechanism of Action

  • 95Mat5 specifically targets α-neurotoxins, which are a specific class of 3FTxs that prevent nerve and muscle cells from responding to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in carrying messages from neurons to muscles.

  • By binding to the toxins, 95Mat5 prevents toxins from interacting with the receptors in human nerve and muscle cells, thereby blocking their ability to induce paralysis and other deadly effects.

  • In animal experiments, 95Mat5 demonstrated efficacy in neutralizing the toxins present in the venoms of various snake species, protecting the animals from death.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: 95Mat5 UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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