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AI regulation UPSC NOTE

 

  • With the passing of the United Nations Resolution on Artificial Intelligence, the need and associated discourse on the regulation of AI has entered a new phase. 

  • A global acknowledgement of the risks associated with AI systems and the urgent need to promote responsible use was at the centre of the adopted resolution. 

  • It was recognised that unethical and improper use of AI systems would impede the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), weakening the ongoing efforts across all three dimensions — social, environmental, and economic.

  • Another controversial aspect mentioned in the UN resolution has been the plausible adverse impact of AI on the workforce. 

  • It would be imperative, especially for developing and least developed countries, to devise a response as the labour market in such countries is increasingly vulnerable to the use of such systems. 

  • In addition to its workforce, the impact on small and medium entrepreneurs also needs to be ascertained. 

  • The Resolution has shed light on the future implications of AI systems and the urgent need to adopt collaborative action

EU’s approach

  • EU recently passed the AI Act, the foremost law establishing rules and regulations governing AI systems. 

  • With its risk-based approach, the Act categorises systems into four categories, namely unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal risks, prescribing guidelines for each. 

  • The Act prescribes an absolute ban on applications that risk citizens’ rights, including manipulation of human behaviour, emotion recognition, mass surveillance etc. 

  • The landmark legislation highlights two important considerations — acknowledging the compliance burden placed on business enterprises, and start-ups, and regulating the much-deliberated Generative AI systems such as ChatGPT

China’s stand on AI

  • Focuses on prompting AI tools and innovation with safeguards against any future harm to the nation’s social and economic goals

  • China released, in phases, a regulatory framework addressing the following three issues 

    • content moderation, which includes identification of content generated through any AI system; 

  • personal data protection, with a specific focus on the need to procure users’ consent before accessing and processing their data; 

  • algorithmic governance, with a focus on security and ethics while developing and running algorithms over any gathered dataset.


U.K.’s framework

  • UK has adopted a principled and context-based approach in its ongoing efforts to regulate AI systems. 

  • The approach requires mandatory consultations with regulatory bodies, expanding its technical know-how and expertise in better regulating complex technologies while bridging regulatory gaps, if any. 

  • The U.K. has thus, resorted to a decentralised and more soft law approach rather than opting to regulate AI systems through stringent legal rules. 

  • This is in striking contrast to the EU approach.


India’s position

  • India will be home to over 10,000 deep tech start-ups by 2030. 

  • In this direction, a ₹10,300 crore allocation was approved for the India AI mission to further its AI ecosystem through enhanced public-private partnerships and promote the start-up ecosystem. 

  • Amongst other initiatives, the allocation would be used to deploy 10,000 Graphic Processing Units, Large Multi-Models (LMMs) and other AI-based research collaboration and efficient and innovative projects

  • India’s response must align with its commitment towards the SDGs while also ensuring that economic growth is maintained. 

  • This would require the judicious use of AI systems to offer solutions that could further the innovation while mitigating its risks

  • A gradual phase-led approach appears more suitable for India’s efforts towards a fair and inclusive AI system.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: AI regulation UPSC NOTE
AI regulation UPSC NOTE
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