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Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) UPSC NOTE


  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microbes evolve mechanisms that protect them from the effects of antimicrobials (drugs used to treat infections).

  • All classes of microbes can evolve resistance where the drugs are no longer effective.

  • Fungi evolve antifungal resistance, viruses evolve antiviral resistance, protozoa evolve antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria evolve antibiotic resistance.

Use of AI

  • Where existing libraries also fall short, some AI-driven computer programs can also predict the structures of potential drug molecules

  • Chemists can synthesise them from scratch or one can pick existing molecules with similar structures and modify them.

  • Works are going on with AI-based companies to help with computational drug discovery, and plan to work with the pharmaceutical industry to synthesise them

Use of AI

  • Some recommend drug companies add the newly discovered targets to their to-be-tested lists

  • These companies already have the capacity to conduct high-throughput screening — a process in which researchers check the suitability of thousands or even millions of molecules in parallel. 

  • Such molecules are more logistically and financially feasible than one scientist testing a handful of drug targets.

The Process and Challenge

  • Once a suitable group of molecules has been identified, they will have to be tested procedurally for safety and efficacy

  • First in a cell culture model and then in experimental animal models, researchers check if the inhibitors selectively work against pathogens (rather than against human cells). 

  • Today, many startups also work as contract research labs and perform such tests. 

  • After this begin the clinical trials, which are closely regulated to ensure they are ethically conducted and produce data uncompromised by any bias. 

The Process and Challenge

  • If the trials’ results surpass a predetermined threshold of success, regulatory authorities approve the drugs for the market

  • This road between identifying new drug targets and actually having drugs against those targets is long but necessary

  • It requires expertise of many kinds to ease the process. 

The Process and Challenge

  • Developing tools such as molecular docking simulations, AI-driven drug discovery, and chemical libraries all exemplify collaborations between infectious disease biologists, structural biologists, computational biologists, chemists, and various research institutions motivated by a common cause and, of course, sufficient funding. 

  • This network also has to expand to include startups and the industry at large.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) UPSC NOTE
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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