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Central Govt Schemes UPSC NOTE

 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005

  • It is earlier known as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act or NREGA, is an Indian social welfare measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'. 

  • This act was passed on 23 August 2005 and was implemented in February 2006 under the UPA government of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh 

  • The primary objective of the scheme is to guarantee 100 days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work.

  • Women are guaranteed one third of the jobs made available under the MGNREGA

  • Wages must be paid according to the statutory minimum wages specified for agricultural labourers in the state under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948

  • It is legally-backed guarantee for any rural adult to get work within 15 days of demanding it, failing which an ‘unemployment allowance’ must be given.

  • This demand-driven scheme enables the self-selection of workers.

  • There is an emphasis on strengthening the process of decentralisation by giving a significant role in Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementing these works.

    • The act mandates Gram sabhas to recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50% of the works must be executed by them.

National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 

  • The National Food Security Act 2013, also known as Right to Food Act, is an Indian Act of Parliament which aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of the country's 1.4 billion people

  • Notified on: 10th September, 2013

  • The National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA 2013) converts into legal entitlements for existing food security programmes of the Government of India. 

    • It includes the Midday Meal Scheme, Integrated Child Development Services scheme and the Public Distribution System

National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 

  • 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS)

    • Overall, NFSA caters to 67% of the total population.

Public Distribution System (PDS)

  • It is a food security system that was established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution to distribute food and non-food items to India's poor at subsidised rates. 

  • Major commodities distributed include staple food grains, such as wheat, rice, sugar and essential fuels like kerosene, through a network of fair price shops (also known as ration shops) established in several states across the country. 

  • Food Corporation of India, a government-owned corporation, procures and maintains the PDS.

Public Distribution System (PDS)

  • Beneficiaries of the Public Distribution System are entitled to 5 kilograms per person per month of cereals at the following prices:

    • Rice at ₹3  per kg

    • Wheat at ₹2per kg

    • Coarse grains (millet) at ₹1 per kg.

  • Those with Antyodaya cards are entitled to 35 kg per month at the same prices as above

    • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY): AAY was a step in the direction of making TPDS aim at reducing hunger among the poorest segments of the BPL population, launched in 2000

Public Distribution System (PDS)

  • The Central and State Governments share responsibilities in order to provide food grains to the identified beneficiaries.

  • The centre procures food grains from farmers at a minimum support price (MSP) and sells it to states at central issue prices.

  • It is responsible for transporting the grains to godowns in each state.

  • States bear the responsibility of transporting food grains from these godowns to each ration shop, where the beneficiary buys the food grains at the lower central issue price. 

Public Distribution System (PDS)

  • Many states further subsidise the price of food grains before selling it to beneficiaries

Mid-Day Meals (MDM)

  • It is a school meal programme in India designed to better the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide.

  • The scheme has been renamed as PM-POSHAN  (Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman) Scheme.

  • The programme supplies free lunches on working days for children in government primary and upper primary schools, government aided Anganwadis, Madarsa and Maqtabs

Mid-Day Meals (MDM)

  • In post-independent India, the Midday Meal Scheme was first launched in Tamil Nadu, pioneered by the former Chief minister K. Kamaraj in the early 1960s

  • The union government launched as a centrally sponsored scheme on a pilot basis in 1995 for children in Classes 1 to 5.

    • By October 2007, MDMS had been scaled up to Class 8

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • It is a government program in India which provides nutritional meals, preschool education, primary healthcare, immunization, health check-up and referral services to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.

  • The Umbrella ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

  • The scheme was launched in 1975, discontinued in 1978 by the government of Morarji Desai, and then relaunched by the Tenth Five Year Plan

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • It provides a package of six services namely supplementary nutrition, pre-school non-formal education, nutrition & health education, immunisation, health check-up and referral services.

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • Schemes Under the ICDS

    • Anganwadi Services Scheme :It is a unique programme for early childhood care and development.

    • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana: It provides cash incentive amounting to Rs.5,000/- in three instalments directly to the Bank/Post Office Account of Pregnant Women and Lactating Mother (PW&LM) in DBT (Direct Benefit Transfer) Mode during pregnancy and lactation in response to individual fulfilling specific conditions.

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • Schemes Under the ICDS

    • National Creche Scheme: It provides day care facilities to children of age group of 6 months to 6 years of working women.

      • The facilities are provided for seven and half hours a day for 26 days in a month



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