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Israel Iran conflict UPSC NOTE

 Historical Background:

  • Nebuchadnezzar's actions in 586 BC: Destroyed the first Jewish temple, sacked the Jewish kingdom of Judea, and took its citizens captive to Babylonia.

  • Description of Nebuchadnezzar as the "Destroyer of Nations" in Jewish scripture.


Long-standing Enmity:

  • 26 centuries of animosity between Jews and Persians, with a brief period of alliance during the Pahlavi era in Iran.

  • Restoration of hostility with the advent of the Islamic Republic in 1979.

  • Iran's denunciation of Israel as the "smaller Satan" and pursuit of weapons of mass destruction.

  • Israel's view of Iran as an existential threat and vow to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.

  • Historical reliance on non-state proxies by both Iran and Israel to pursue their agendas.


Recent Direct Confrontation:

  • Prior shadow boxing and indirect hostilities between Iran and Israel.

  • Escalation to direct exchanges of projectiles in April, marking a new phase in their conflict.

  • Suspected airstrike on the Iranian embassy compound in Damascus, followed by Iranian retaliation and Israeli counterattacks.


Factors Fueling Hostility:

  • Historical, religious, and geopolitical factors contributing to Israel-Iran animosity.

  • Role of the Zionist movement, Balfour Declaration, Jewish migration to Palestine, and conflicts with local Arabs.

  • Impact of the Holocaust on Jewish migration to Palestine.

  • UN resolution on the partition of Palestine in 1947 and subsequent Israeli occupation.

  • Creation of the anti-Israel "axis of resistance" by Iran, comprising Hamas, Hezbollah, and Houthis.


Religious and Cultural Significance:

  • Impact of historical events like the victory at Khayber on Arab perceptions of Jews.

  • Chants invoking Khayber in anti-Israel demonstrations.

  • Iran's missile named "Khaybar" with the capability to hit Israel.

  • Iran's efforts to foster Shia loyalties across the region.

Strategic Motives of Iran and Israel:

  • Iran's aim to delay nuclear weapon capability by engaging Israel in wars of attrition.

  • Israel's strategy of swift, decisive wars leveraging superior U.S. armaments.

  • Israel's territorial ambitions limited to specific regions.

  • Israel's current conflict with Hamas following an attack on October 7.


Concerns of Arab and Muslim Regimes:

  • Fear of being drawn into a conflict between Iran and Israel.

  • Concerns about regional instability disrupting oil production and economic stability.

  • Diplomatic moves by Saudi Arabia and Iran to secure regional alliances for security.


Potential Impact on India:

  • Impact on Prime Minister Narendra Modi's "act west" policy.

  • Economic implications, including an expected oil price surge and insecurity for Indian expatriates in West Asia.

  • Impact on multilateral initiatives involving India, Israel, and other countries.

  • Domestic ramifications for India due to its large Muslim population and potential sectarian tensions.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Israel Iran conflict UPSC NOTE
Israel Iran conflict UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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