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Local pollution and Global Warming in India UPSC NOTE

 What is the major contributor to local pollution and global warming In India? 

  • Vehicular emissions are a major contributor to local pollution and global warming

  • In India, about 88% of the carbon dioxide emissions come from traffic

  • Across cities alone, over a three-month period, the study found that teleconsultation.

  • This led to 1,666 fewer kilometres of travel and an average reduction of 176.6 kg of carbon dioxide emissions

  • A study by researchers at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), Hyderabad, has found that around 70-80% of people.

  • Visit an eye hospital can benefit from teleconsultations because their problems aren’t serious enough to require attention at a hospital

  • The study was published in the journal Eye.

  • Telemedicine has emerged as a viable alternative to in-person consultations with doctors in many contexts because it saves patients’ time and expenses.

  • Which can be considerable if they are located in remote areas and/or are not well to do

  • But as more people pick this option, another advantage is coming to the fore: lower emissions.

Impact of teleconsultation in carbon dioxide emissions.

  • The study involved 324 patients who received teleconsultations within a three-month period.

  • This included 173 patients who visited LVPEI’s rural primary eye centres and 151 that visited urban tertiary hospitals. 

  • The researchers assessed their carbon footprint based on the type of transport the patients used to commute to the clinic. 

  • They also evaluated the economic impact using estimated cost savings from travel, food, and lost wages.

  • Patients at rural centres were tagged ‘green,’ ‘yellow’ or ‘red’ based on the severity and urgency of medical intervention required.

  • Around 70% of such patients were tagged ‘green’ because they could benefit from a teleconsultation alone

  • The remaining 30% travelled to a hospital

  • Their travel and emission costs were used to validate emissions and costs avoided by those tagged ‘green’. 

  • Patients in urban centres were classified as ‘new’ or ‘follow-up’; modes of travel and costs were evaluated and included in the study.

  • Half of the patients in rural areas (49.5%) said they would have travelled by bus, while 38.7% would have used a two-wheeler to access care.

  • Researchers estimated that teleophthalmology saved 80 km of travel and reduced 2.89 kg of carbon dioxide emissions per rural-area patient on average. 

  • That translated to around 1.2 litres of petrol saved per person over three months (with an emission factor of 0.1135 kg of carbon dioxide per passenger per km).

  • The numbers were more pronounced for urban tertiary-care hospitals. 

  • Care-seekers from around India came to LVPEI’s tertiary centres in four southern Indian cities.

  • Some 41% of them travelled by train; 19% flew; and 11% took buses

  • Each deferred patient visit saved an average of 1,666 km of travel and reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 176.6 kg over three months

  • Each decision to defer also saved around 76 litres of fuel.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Local pollution and Global Warming in India UPSC NOTE
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