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Anaesthesia UPSC NOTE

 General anaesthesia

  • General anaesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness. 

  • During a general anaesthetic, medicines are used to send you to sleep, so you're unaware of surgery and do not move or feel pain while it's carried out.

  • Anesthesia works by blocking signals in the nervous system

  • The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

  • Messages from the body travel through the nerves and spinal cord to the brain.

  • Anesthesia blocks pain messages from getting to the brain.

  • A patient who gets general anesthesia is completely unconscious (or "asleep"). 

  • They can’t feel any pain, are not aware of the surgery as it happens, and don’t remember anything from when they are “asleep.” 

  • Patients can get general anesthesia through an IV (into a vein) or inhale it through their nose and mouth. 

  • A tube placed in their throat helps the person breathe while they are under general anesthesia. 

Excitatory and inhibitory neurons

  • There are two main categories of neurons in the brain.

  • The first are what we call “excitatory” neurons, generally responsible for keeping us alert and awake. 

  • The second are “inhibitory” neurons – their job is to regulate and control the excitatory ones.

  • In our day-to-day lives, excitatory and inhibitory neurons are constantly working and balancing one another.

  • When we fall asleep, there are inhibitory neurons in the brain that “silence” the excitatory ones keeping us awake

  • This happens gradually over time, which is why you may feel progressively more tired through the day.

  • General anaesthetics speed up this process by directly silencing these excitatory neurons without any action from the inhibitory ones

  • This is why your anaesthetist will tell you that they’ll “put you to sleep” for the procedure: it’s essentially the same process.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Anaesthesia UPSC NOTE
Anaesthesia UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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