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Decline of Liberalism in India UPSC NOTE

 Reduced Discussion on Political Values: 

  • The focus on heated rhetoric during elections overshadows serious discussions about core political values like liberalism.

Challenges to Liberalism:

  • Globally: Liberal democracy is on the decline with a rise of populist and authoritarian leaders.

  • In India: Both left and right criticize liberalism:

    • Left: Views liberalism as elitist, prioritizing the wealthy and individualism, leading to inequality.

  • Right: Views liberalism's emphasis on individual freedom as a threat to social values, tradition, and dismisses it as a Western import.

Need for Reformed Liberalism:

  • The rise of illiberal alternatives and weakening democratic institutions necessitate a reformed liberalism.

  • Liberal values like individual liberty, freedom, social justice, and societal harmony have roots in Indian society.

Reforming Indian Liberalism: Four proposals for reform:

  • Engage with Tradition and Identity: Address cultural concerns and the sense of marginalization to connect with the masses.

  • Inclusive Economic Approach: Move beyond neoliberalism and develop a more equitable and socially just economic system.

  • Political Reform and Strong Institutions: Strengthen democratic institutions, citizen participation, and address overreach by the state.

  • Liberal Consensus: Liberals need to find common ground and work together to counter threats to democracy.


  • The time to reform and revive Indian liberalism is now.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Decline of Liberalism in India UPSC NOTE
Decline of Liberalism in India UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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