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Malaria transmission risk in Africa UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • Areas at risk for malaria transmission in Africa may decline more than previously expected because of climate change in the 21st century.

  • Suggests an ensemble of environmental and hydrologic models

  • The combined models predicted that the total area of suitable malaria transmission will start to decline in Africa after 2025 through 2100,

  • It including in West Africa and as far east as South Sudan. 

  • The new study’s approach captures hydrologic features that are missed with predictive models of transmission.

How climate change will affect malaria transmission risk in Africa

  • The impact of climate change on malaria transmission risk in Africa is a complex issue with some surprising recent findings. 

Traditional View:

  • Historically, a connection was drawn between warmer temperatures and increased malaria transmission. 

  • Warmer temperatures can shorten the development cycle of the malaria parasite within mosquitoes.

    • Warmer temperatures can also expand the geographical range of mosquito species that transmit malaria.

Recent Findings:

  • New research suggests a potential decrease in overall malaria transmission risk in Africa due to climate change, starting from around 2025 onwards.

  • This is because some regions in Africa may experience: 

    • Increased aridity and drought due to climate change. 

    • These drier conditions are not suitable for mosquito breeding, potentially reducing transmission rates.

Important Caveats:

  • This decrease is not predicted to be uniform across Africa. 

  • Some areas, particularly at higher elevations, might see an increase in transmission risk due to changing weather patterns.

  • The overall impact of climate change on malaria is likely to vary depending on the specific location and the effectiveness of existing control measures.

Uncertainties Remain:

  • The long-term effects of climate change on factors like rainfall patterns and humidity are still uncertain. 

  • These factors can significantly influence mosquito breeding and malaria transmission.

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Amritsar,1,April 2024,301,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,54,February 2024,228,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,67,Govt Schemes,2,GST,1,History,2,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,46,Indian History,2,Indian Polity,56,International Organisation,12,International Relations,58,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,March 2024,238,May 2022,17,May 2024,233,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,66,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Malaria transmission risk in Africa UPSC NOTE
Malaria transmission risk in Africa UPSC NOTE
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