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T cell UPSC NOTE

 Why in News

  • Results from a new clinical trial shed light on the performance of infusions of immune-calming regulatory T cells for children with type 1 diabetes

  • The trial shows that a single dose of the cells can transfer over efficiently in children.

  •  But does not show signs of preserving insulin-releasing cells in the pancreas.

  • Highlighting the need for further research.

  • Researchers have theorized that supporting regulatory T cell activity – or even infusing these cells – could treat autoimmune disorders.

What is T cell and T cell therapies

  • T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system's fight against infections

  • They are like the army of the immune system, specifically targeting and eliminating infected cells or abnormal cells like cancer cells.

T Cells:

  • Function: T cells identify and destroy infected cells or cancer cells by recognizing specific proteins on their surface called antigens.

  • Types: There are different types of T cells, each with a specific role: 

  • Cytotoxic T cells (killer T cells): These directly kill infected or cancerous cells.

  • Helper T cells: These cells don't directly kill but help other immune system cells function properly.

  • Memory T cells: These "remember" past encounters with antigens and can launch a quicker response upon future exposure.

T Cell Therapies:

  • T cell therapies are a type of immunotherapy for cancer treatment. 

  • They harness the power of a patient's own T cells to fight cancer

  • T cell extraction: Blood is drawn from the patient, and T cells are extracted.

  • Engineering: In a lab, the T cells are genetically modified to better recognize and attack cancer cells. 

    • A common method is CAR T-cell therapy, where a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is introduced into the T cells. 

    • This CAR helps the T cells specifically target cancer cells.

  • The modified T cells are grown in large numbers in the lab.

  • The engineered T cells are infused back into the patient's bloodstream.

  • The modified T cells then attack the cancer cells throughout the body.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: T cell UPSC NOTE
T cell UPSC NOTE
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