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Coalition government UPSC NOTE

 What is coalition government

  • Coalition government is defined as when several political parties join hands to form a government and exercise political power based on a common agreed programme.

  • Coalitions usually occur in modern parliaments when no single political party gets clear majority.

Features Of Coalition Government:

  • A coalition implies the existence of at least two parties to form government.

  • Coalition politics is not a static but a dynamic affair as coalition players and groups dissolve and form new ones.

  • A coalition government works based on a minimum programme, which may not satisfy aspirations of all the members of the coalition government.

  • The pre-poll coalition is considerably advantageous because it provides a common platform for the parties to woo the electorate based on a joint manifesto.

  • The post-election union is intended to enable constituents to share political power and run the government.

Impact of coalition governments on economic reforms in India

  • When there is a single majority ruling party in the centre, it can have a salutary effect on the trajectory of economic reforms in India

  • But, when there is a coalition government at the centre, the impact of various viewpoints (regional parties) that are part of the coalition plays a key role in the initiatives of the government and building consensus among the different parties becomes challenging, which greatly affects the policy decisions of the central government.

  • The V.P. Singh government had six committees to examine the most pressing issues of the time. 

  • These evolved and in the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government, they took the form of ‘Group of Ministers’, and they continued in the UPA era too.

  • When it comes to economic reforms history, coalition governments have worked better

Coalition vs. Single-party Governments

  • In a single-party government, there have been decisions, such as the farm laws, which were taken without getting everyone on board

  • Something like that would not have probably happened in a coalition because there would have been greater dialogue.

  • Institutions that are meant to facilitate and promote Centre-State relations are more activated in coalition governments

  • That is because the allies are often regional parties. 

  • Institutions that are meant to facilitate and promote Centre-State relations are more activated in coalition governments

  • That is because the allies are often regional parties. 

  • Coalition governments also affect policies.  

  • It could also lead to policy instability as getting everyone on board while formulating policies becomes a matter of great effort in the alliance.

  • While there’s nothing to worry in single party govt.

  • The coalition government remains subject to pulls and pressures, as coalition partners go for bargaining

  • As a result, some coalitions fail unless all partners are on board.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Coalition government UPSC NOTE
Coalition government UPSC NOTE
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