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 Why in news

  • The Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) has earmarked funds to construct canopy bridges for India’s only ape to move across a railway track bifurcating its prime habitat in eastern Assam.

  • A 1.65-km-long track — set to be doubled and electrified — divides the 2,098.62-hectare Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary in Jorhat district

  • The sanctuary has the largest concentration of the Hoolock gibbon, one of 20 species of apes on earth


  • The gibbon, known for its vocalisation, spends much of its time on the upper canopy of tall trees, mostly the hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus).

  • Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae 

  • The family historically contained one genus, but now is split into four extant genera and 20 species. 

  • Gibbons live in subtropical and tropical rainforests from eastern Bangladesh to Northeast India to southern China and Indonesia 

  • Also called the lesser apes, gibbons differ from great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, and not making nests.

  • Like all apes, gibbons are tailless

  • They are smallest and fastest of all apes

  • Unlike most of the great apes, gibbons frequently form long-term pair bonds. 

  • Their primary mode of locomotion, brachiation, involves swinging from branch to branch

  • Gibbons are included in the CITES Appendix I list

  • International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) Red List:

    • Western Hoolock Gibbon: Endangered

    • Eastern Hoolock Gibbon: Vulnerable.

  • Also, both the species are listed on Schedule 1 of the Indian (Wildlife) Protection Act 1972



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Gibbon UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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