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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) UPSC NOTE

 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Machine

  • MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic procedure used to obtain images of soft tissues within the body.

  • It is widely utilised for imaging various body parts such as the brain, cardiovascular system, spinal cord, joints, muscles, liver, and arteries.

  • Unlike X-rays, which use radiation, MRI scans leverage powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of soft tissues within the body.

  • Professor Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield won the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their innovative research which resulted in the invention of MRI.

  • MRI Machine Components: The MRI machine consists of three essential components, including a superconducting magnet, a radiofrequency pulse emitter, and a detector.

Working

  • An MRI procedure utilises hydrogen atoms present in the body part being scanned.

  • When a patient enters the MRI machine, their body’s hydrogen atoms align with the magnetic field

  • Radio waves are then used to temporarily disrupt this alignment

  • When the radio waves are turned off, the hydrogen atoms return to their aligned state, emitting energy that is detected by the scanner.

  • Different tissues emit different signals based on their hydrogen atom density and molecular environment, allowing the scanner to create detailed images that physicians can use to diagnose various medical conditions.

Applications

  • MRI plays a crucial role in observing and treating cancers like prostate and rectal cancer, as well as tracking neurological conditions including Alzheimer's, dementia, epilepsy, and stroke.

  • Additionally, researchers use MRI scans to study changes in blood flow, aiding in understanding brain activity

Recent development

  • Scientists have designed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner that costs a fraction of existing machines, setting the stage for improving access to this widely used diagnostic tool.

  • It is portable and relatively light-weight, doesn’t need cumbersome shielding, and can be plugged into standard wall sockets

  • In India, such machines can be used for preliminary tests, help doctors responding to accidents, and in paediatric settings

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) UPSC NOTE
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) UPSC NOTE
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