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Multi-omics UPSC NOTE

 What is Multi-omics?

  • With the progress in all the different omics (the sum of constituents within a cell) fields, it is being increasingly recognized that the answer to a research question cannot be answered by one form of omics. 

  • The microbiome influences the gene and protein expression which in turn influence the metabolome, and all these processes crosstalk and regulate each other.

  • Studying these processes in their entirety is critical to find strategies to treat diseases

  • This is where the multi-omics field is coming in.

  • This field encompasses all the omics fields and tries to understand the native and altered state of an organism by the analysis of the data from different omics experiments

  • Researchers are building datasets to address health problems at the individual level

  • They have extracted more value from these data using AI and machine learning, and combining their output with proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic information to develop ‘multi-omics’ approaches

Genome Sequencing and its applications

  • Genome Sequencing is a laboratory method that is used to determine the entire genetic makeup of a specific organism or cell type. 

  • This method can be used to find changes in areas of the genome

  • These changes may help scientists understand how specific diseases, such as cancer, form

  • Researchers have started using AI and ML to help with analysing genome-sequencing data in cases of rare genetic disorders

  • A single instance of sequencing the entire exome of an individual can yield 5 GB of data and whole-genome sequencing can yield 90 GB

  • Technicians are using AI- and ML-based approaches in the in-house bioinformatic pipelines as well as part of commercial tools for analysis of the sequencing data to identify disease-causing variants.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Multi-omics UPSC NOTE
Multi-omics UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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