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Participation of women in unincorporated enterprises UPSC NOTE


  • The share of women owners and workers in unincorporated enterprises was relatively high in the southern States, according to the recently released Annual Survey of Unincorporated Sector 2022-23. 

  • To an extent, in some eastern States too, the share of women in the sector was high

  • It remained low in the western, northern, and central States

  • The unincorporated sector includes jobs that require little to no capital and skills, such as street vending, as well as work that involves considerable investment and expertise, such as tailoring and car repair. 

  • The shop may be operated by an individual or a self-employed entrepreneur who may enlist unpaid family members or employ paid workers. 

  • They may work from a fixed location or in homes, small shops, and workshops. 

  • The survey divides such workers into three broad sectors: manufacturing, trade, and other services and does not include agricultural establishments

  • The sector excludes establishments registered under the Companies Act and covered under the Annual Survey of Industries, and public sector/government companies.

  • Share of women working across all sectors of unincorporated enterprises, including all the classes of workers put together : Telangana leads the country, with women constituting 41% of the workforce

  • The share in other southern States crossed 30%, closely followed by West Bengal and Odisha at 30%

  • Share of women among worker-owners across sectors. Here, too, southern States stand out

  • This means that in the south, women not only formed a higher share of the overall workforce (including owners), but they also constituted a relatively higher share among worker-owners

  • However, in general, the share of women among unpaid family workers in unincorporated enterprises was much higher than other job-types in every State

  • Even in Telangana, while 43% was the share of women across worker-owners, 52% among formal hired workers, and 26% among informal hired workers, it was 59% among unpaid family workers



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Participation of women in unincorporated enterprises UPSC NOTE
Participation of women in unincorporated enterprises UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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