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Smear Microscopy & Molecular Test UPSC NOTE


  • The WHO Global TB report 2022 indicates over 40% of global TB cases were undiagnosed in 2021.

  • India, Indonesia, and the Philippines saw a 67% drop in diagnosed TB cases in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • India's TB diagnosis gap existed before the pandemic, with the National TB prevalence survey showing 64% not tested.

  • Sputum smear microscopy, with limited sensitivity, missed many TB cases; WHO guidelines recommended molecular tests.

  • India had been slow in adopting molecular tests, despite their accuracy and ability to detect rifampicin resistance.

  • India's reliance on smear microscopy continued even as molecular tests were scaled up from 2014 to 2022.

  • The National Strategic Plan aimed to reduce smear microscopy and increase molecular tests, but the trend was opposite.

  • India's TB report 2023 shows smear microscopy was still used in 77% of cases, while molecular tests were used in 23%.

  • The absence of cough symptoms complicates early TB diagnosis; chest X-rays are crucial for detection.

  • The RNTCP was renamed NTEP in 2020, emphasizing India's goal to eliminate TB by 2025, ahead of SDG targets.

  • The passage questions India's reliance on smear microscopy for achieving its ambitious TB elimination goal.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Smear Microscopy & Molecular Test UPSC NOTE
Smear Microscopy & Molecular Test UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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