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  • Since 2014, efforts have been made under the Namami Gange Programme to clean the Ganga and rejuvenate the river network.

  • The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and the Ministry of Forest collaborated with the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) to establish a turtle breeding and rehabilitation center in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.

  • Various turtle species, including herbivorous and carnivorous turtles, help in cleaning the river by clearing debris such as rotten or half-burnt human bodies and dumped flowers.


  • Turtles play a role in improving the water quality of the Ganga as they feed on meat and waste products present in the river.

  • Assessments of water quality have shown improvements in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform (FC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels.

  • The long-term impact of turtles on the river ecosystem is yet to be determined 

  • Turtles are the reptiles of the order Testudines, characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

  • It can reside inside freshwater or saltwater.

  • Tortoise are distinguished from other turtles by being land-dwelling, while many (though not all) other turtle species are at partly aquatic.

  • Turtles are cold-blooded species.

  • Cold blooded species have a higher range of body temperature and move between environments to make themselves warmer or cooler. E.g. Insects, arachnids, fish, reptiles, and amphibians.

  • They have very slow metabolism and can survive without food and water for a long time.

  • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) most of the species of turtles and tortoises are vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Turtles UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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