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Aditya-L1 Mission UPSC NOTE

 Aditya-L1 mission

  • Aditya L1 shall be the first space based Indian mission to study the Sun. 

  • The spacecraft shall be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, which is about 1.5 million km from the Earth. 

  • A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 point has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/eclipses. 

  • This will provide a greater advantage of observing the solar activities and its effect on space weather in real time. 

  • The spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and the outermost layers of the Sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. 

  • Using the special vantage point L1, four payloads directly view the Sun and the remaining three payloads carry out in-situ studies of particles and fields at the Lagrange point L1.

  • Thus providing important scientific studies of the propagatory effect of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium.

  • The suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide most crucial informations  to understand the problem of 

    • coronal heating, coronal mass ejection

    • pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics

    • dynamics of space weather

    • propagation of particle and fields etc.

The major science objectives of Aditya-L1 mission are:

  • Study of Solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics.

  • Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, physics of the partially ionized plasma, initiation of the coronal mass ejections, and flares.

  • Observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun.

  • Physics of solar corona and its heating mechanism.

  • Diagnostics of the coronal and coronal loops plasma: Temperature, velocity and density.

  • Development, dynamics and origin of CMEs.

  • Magnetic field topology and magnetic field measurements in the solar corona.

  • Drivers for space weather (origin, composition and dynamics of solar wind) .

  • Identify the sequence of processes that occur at multiple layers (chromosphere, base and extended corona) which eventually leads to solar eruptive events.

Aditya-L1 Payloads:

  • The instruments of Aditya-L1 are tuned to observe the solar atmosphere mainly the chromosphere and corona. 

  • In-situ instruments will observe the local environment at L1. 

  • There are total seven payloads on-board with four of them carrying out remote sensing of the Sun and three of them carrying in-situ observation.

Recently in news

  • Aditya-L1, will be launched onboard the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on 2nd September 2023.

  • Approximately sixty-three minutes after lift-off, the satellite separation is expected to take place as the PSLV will launch the Aditya-L1 spacecraft into a highly eccentric earth-bound orbit.

  • This PSLV-C57/Aditya-L1 mission can be counted as one of the longest missions involving ISRO’s workhorse launch vehicle. 

  • However, the longest of the PSLV missions is still the 2016 PSLV-C35 mission which was completed two hours, 15 minutes and 33 seconds after lift-off.

  • Following the launch, Aditya-L1 will stay in earth-bound orbits for 16 days, during which it will undergo five manoeuvres to gain the necessary velocity for its journey.

  • Subsequently, Aditya-L1 undergoes a Trans-Lagrangian1 insertion manoeuvre, marking the beginning of its 110-day trajectory to the destination.

  • Aditya-L1 will stay approximately 1.5 million km away from the earth, directed towards the sun; this is about 1% of the distance between the earth and the sun.

What are the support from European Space Agency (ESA)?

  • The European Space Agency (ESA) which had provided crucial support to ISRO to monitor the Chandrayaan-3’s health, will also be supporting Aditya-L1, providing deep space communication services to the mission.


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