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Biomining of Legacy Waste UPSC NOTE


What is Legacy Waste?

  • Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) that has been collected and kept for years on some barren land or landfill for long periods of time is called Legacy waste. 

Biomining of Legacy Waste

  • The scientific process of excavation, treatment, segregation and gainful utilisation of aged municipal solid waste or legacy waste is called Biomining, according to the guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). 

  • Biomining is an environmentally friendly technique to separate soil and recyclables like plastic, metal, paper, textiles, Construction & Demolition waste materials and other solid materials from legacy waste. 

  • It provides a reliable solution to complex environmental issues and uses environmentally friendly techniques for materials sorting and segregation for further use, recycling, or filling low-lying areas.

  • Biomining practically involves the following steps:

    • Scientific treatment of old waste to remove undigested organic matter

    • The spray of cultures to suppress odour

    • Drying of material

    • Screening/classification of material using various types of equipment

    • Making various products using the processed waste material

    • Levelling of recovered land

    • Planting trees for environmental detoxification

Solid Waste Management Rules and Biomining

  • The Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 now mandate bio-mine legacy waste instead of 'capping' which means covering the waste with soil. 

  • These rules focus on the segregation of waste at the source, the responsibility of the manufacturer to dispose of sanitary and packaging wastes, and user fees for collection, disposal and processing from the bulk generator.

  • Promoting the use of compost, and conversion of waste into energy, the rule also includes the suggestion on how bio-degradable waste should be processed, treated and disposed of.

What are the benefits of Biomining?

  • Biomining has many advantages including zero emissions and leaving near-zero residues, helping in reducing soil pollution, soil contamination and groundwater.

  • It reduces greenhouse gas emissions and no energy is required for the process. 

  • Further, the reclaimed land can be used for other development purposes.

  • Landfills are among the major sources of disease and clearing them can help in decreasing vector-borne diseases. 



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Biomining of Legacy Waste UPSC NOTE
Biomining of Legacy Waste UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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