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Terai-Arc Landscape UPSC NOTE


  • The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) is an 810km stretch between the river Yamuna in the west and the river Bhagmati in the east, comprising the Shivalik hills, the adjoining bhabhar areas and the Terai flood plains.

  • It is spread across the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and the low lying hills of Nepal

  • In total, the landscape has 13 Protected Areas, nine in India and four in Nepal, covering a total area of 49,500 km2, of which 30,000km2 lies in India.

  • The landscape boasts of some of India’s most well-known Tiger Reserves and Protected Areas such as Corbett Tiger Reserve, Rajaji National Park, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, Valmiki Tiger Reserve 

  • And Nepal’s Bardia Wildlife Sanctuary, Chitwan National Park, and Sukhla Phanta Wildlife Sanctuary. 

Prey selection patterns of tigers in the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) in India.

  • Tiger dung helped scientists at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) understand prey selection patterns of tigers in the Terai-Arc Landscape (TAL) in India.

  • The dung also provided insights into conflicts related to livestock predation across the tiger's habitat.

  • The study's findings were published in the Journal of Mammalogy and authored by Suvankar Biswas, Shrewshree Kumar, Meghna Bandhopadhyay, Shiv Kumar Patel, Salvador Lyngdoh, Bivash Pandav, and Samrat Mondol.

  • The study focused on the 900-km linear stretch of the TAL, characterized by forests, grasslands, and various habitat types.

  • The TAL comprises Shivalik, Bhabar, and Terai regions, covering parts of the lower Himalayas, foothills, and lowland areas.

  • Around 22% of India's wild tiger population resides in TAL, alongside diverse wildlife like gaur, sambar, leopard, and more.

  • Tiger dung provides information on lineage, diet, population status, and landscape use.

  • The study revealed that large prey species like sambar, deer, and livestock constitute about 94% of the tiger's diet.

  • Prey selection is influenced by abundance and body weight, rather than protection status.

  • Long-term conservation plans were suggested, including estimating prey abundance outside protected areas and reducing grazing pressures.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Terai-Arc Landscape UPSC NOTE
Terai-Arc Landscape UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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