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India – Bhutan Relation UPSC NOTE

 Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) 

EIA

  • EIA in India is a process of evaluating the environmental impacts of a proposed project

  • It is a statutory requirement under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

  • The EIA process is intended to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into the planning and decision-making process for development projects.

EIA Process in India

  • In India , EIA is governed by the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2006. 

Projects classified into two categories:


  • Category A : projects have the potential to cause significant environmental impacts. These projects require prior environmental clearance from the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC).

  • Category B : projects are those that have the potential to cause moderate environmental impacts. These projects require prior environmental clearance from the State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA).

Challenges in EIA Implementation

  1. Lack of capacity and expertise among EIA practitioners.

  2. Delays and inefficiencies in the EIA process.

  3. Lack of transparency and public participation in the EIA process.

  4. Weak enforcement of EIA regulations.

The Government is taking steps to address these challenges. 

  • The MoEFCC has launched a number of initiatives to improve the quality and timeliness of EIA reviews. 

  • The government taken steps to strengthen public participation in the EIA process.

Challenges in EIA Implementation

  • Overall, EIA is an important tool for ensuring sustainable development in India. 

  • However, there are a number of challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the effectiveness of EIA implementation.

EIA in India Himalayan Region(IHR)

  • IHR is a fragile ecosystem that is highly vulnerable to environmental impacts. 

  • The region is home to a variety of unique biodiversity and is a source of water and other resources for millions of people. 

  • IHR is also facing a number of challenges, including climate change, deforestation, and unsustainable development practices.

  • EIA is an important tool for ensuring sustainable development in the IHR. 

  • However, the current EIA framework in India does not adequately address the unique challenges of the region. 

  • For example, the threshold limits for projects that require EIA are the same across the country

  • This means that many projects in the IHR that have the potential to cause significant environmental impacts are not subject to EIA.

Steps taken to improve EIA implementation in the IHR,

  • Developing region-specific EIA guidelines that take into account the unique ecological and socio-economic conditions of the IHR.

  • Strengthening the capacity of EIA practitioners in the IHR.

  • Ensuring greater transparency and public participation in the EIA process.

  • Strengthening the enforcement of EIA regulations.

The Government is taking some steps to address these challenges. 

  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has developed draft guidelines for EIA in the IHR. 

  • However, these guidelines have not yet been finalized.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: India – Bhutan Relation UPSC NOTE
India – Bhutan Relation UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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