National Unity - India UPSC NOTE


Evolution of India's national unity 

  • India’s national unity evolved  through political and social movements and legal and constitutional designs.

  • The national identity thus constituted developed along three dimensions.

  • The first dimension is the search for harmony and justice among castes.

  • The second is harmony of religious communities.

  • Third is a common ground among various regional identities.

  • A milestone in this journey was the making of the Constitution.

Evolution of India's national unity 

  • B.R. Ambedkar argued that emancipation of the depressed classes can be achieved only through their separation from the entrenched cultural universe called Hinduism.

  • The biggest challenge in Gandhi’s Hindu unity platform was the proposed separate electorate for the depressed classes.

  • Ambedkar and colonial ruler were in the same side of debate for communal award , 1932.

  • The Poona Pact between the two leaders agreed on assuring representation for the depressed classes, but without a separate electorate. 

Evolution of India's national unity 

  • There is a long prelude and an ongoing postlude in the journey of the constitution.

  • M.K. Gandhi was the primary spokesperson of — Hindu unity and Hindu-Muslim unity.

  • Gandhi attempted to interpret Hinduism in an increasingly inclusive manner. 

  • Gandhi assumed that loyalty to religion was the dominant loyalty in India.

  • Gandhi recognized that caste-based discrimination would hinder Hindu unity , obstructs national unity.

Evolution of India's national unity 

  • The depressed classes would get more representation than they would have got under the proposal for a separate electorate.

  • Reservation remains part of state policy and politics.

  • Also envisaged largely as an instrument to mitigate caste-based disadvantages within Hindu.

  •  For Gandhi Hindu-Muslim unity was an equally important as national unity.

  • He joined with Khilafat Movement, which was driven by a transnational Muslim agenda but united with Hindus in its anti-imperialist edge.

Evolution of India's national unity 

  • The question of a national language was delayed initially for 15 years and then indefinitely.

  • Article 370 gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

  • The Sixth Schedule gave autonomy to the tribal populations in the Northeast.

  • In 1976, considering the diverging population trends in the south and the north, inter-State redistribution of Lok Sabha representation was suspended for 25 years, extended in 2002 for another 25 years.

  • Coalition politics that brought together separate interest groups was the outcome.

Evolution of India's national unity 

  • After 30 years of experiments, it was replaced by a new form of national consolidation that the BJP came to represent.

  • This also entails privileging harmony and hierarchy over justice in inter-caste relationships.

  • The proponents of Hindutva suggest that the nation has been weakened, not strengthened, by the accommodations accorded to peripheral communities and regions, which they label ‘appeasement.

  • This political consolidation in the heartland got the BJP 55% of the Lok Sabha seats with 37% share of the votes in 2019.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: National Unity - India UPSC NOTE
National Unity - India UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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