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Socio – Economic issues in India UPSC NOTE


  • India is a rapidly developing country.

  • But it still faces a number of socio-economic challenges.

  • According to the World Bank, 22.4% of India's population lived below the national poverty line in 2019. 

  • This means that they could not afford to meet their basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, and healthcare.

  •  India is one of the most unequal countries in the world. 

  • The top 10% of the population earns more than 50% of the national income.

  •  This inequality is reflected in the different standards of living btw the rich and the poor.

  •  India has a high unemployment rate.

  •  In 2022, the unemployment rate for people aged 15-24 was 23.6%. 

  • This lack of jobs can lead to poverty and social unrest.

  •  India has made significant progress in education in recent years, but there are still challenges to overcome.

  • The literacy rate is 74.04%, but there is a gender gap in literacy.

  • Female literacy rate being lower than the male literacy rate. 

  • Additionally, there is a shortage of qualified teachers.

  • Schools infrastructure are in poor condition.

  • India has a public healthcare system, but it is underfunded and overcrowded

  • Many people do not have access to quality healthcare, especially in rural areas

  • This can lead to preventable deaths and diseases.

Caste Dynamics

  • The caste system is a complex social hierarchy that has existed in India for centuries.

  • There are four main castes in the Hindu caste system: 

  1. Brahmins (priests and scholars), 

  2. Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), 

  3. Vaishyas (merchants and traders),

  4.  Shudras (laborers and servants). 

  • The caste system is highly discriminatory and has led to widespread social and economic inequality in India.

Caste Dynamics

  •  People from lower castes are often denied access to education, employment, and other resources. 

  • The caste discrimination more likely to be subjected to violence and denial of Basics rights and Public participation.

  • In recent years, there has been a growing movement to challenge the caste system.

  • This movement has been led by people from lower castes, who have been demanding equal rights and opportunities.

Caste Dynamics

  •  Here are some of the ways in which caste dynamics play out in India today:

  • People from lower castes are less likely to attend school and complete their education than people from higher castes. 

  • This is due to a number of factors, including poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to quality education.

  • People from lower castes are more likely to work in low-paying, unskilled jobs

  • This is due to discrimination and lack of access to education and training.

Caste Dynamics

  • People from lower castes are often segregated from people from higher castes in terms of where they live. 

  • This segregation can make it difficult for people from lower castes to access resources and opportunities.

  • Marriage is often used to maintain caste boundaries. 

  • People are typically encouraged to marry within their own caste. 

  • Marriages between people from different castes are often stigmatized and can lead to violence.

Migration and Regional Disparities 

  • It is estimated that over 140 million people migrated within India between 2011 and 2021.

  • Migration is driven by a number of factors, including poverty, unemployment, lack of education and healthcare opportunities, and environmental disasters.

  • The main destination states for migrants are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

  • The main source states for migrants are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha.

Migration and Regional Disparities 

  • On the positive side, migration can help to reduce poverty and unemployment in the source states and contribute to economic growth.

  • On the negative side, migration can lead to social problems in both the source and destination states.

Regional Disputes

  • Some states, such as Maharashtra and Gujarat, are much more developed than others, such as Bihar and Odisha.

  • Regional disparities can lead to a number of problems, including migration, conflict, and social unrest.

  • The Indian government is aware of the challenges posed by migration and regional disparities.

  • The government has implemented a number of programs to address these challenges.

  1. MGNREGS .

  2. Prime Minister's Skill India Mission. 

  • However, more needs to be done to address these challenges and to create a more equitable society for all Indians.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Socio – Economic issues in India UPSC NOTE
Socio – Economic issues in India UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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