Download Learnerz IAS app from the Play Store now! Download



White Phosphorus UPSC NOTE


  • White phosphorus is a toxic, flammable, and pyrophoric allotrope of phosphorus. 

  • It is a white to yellow waxy solid with a garlic-like odor. 

  • White phosphorus is highly reactive and ignites spontaneously in air at temperatures above 30 °C

  • It can burn fiercely and produces dense, white, irritating smoke containing mixed phosphorus oxides.

  • In industry, it is used to manufacture phosphoric acid, phosphates, and other chemicals. 

  • It is also used in some fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds

  • Chemical formula: P4 

  • Physical state: White to yellow waxy solid 

  • Melting point: 44.1 °C 

  • Boiling point: 280.5 °C 

  • Density: 1.82 g/cm3 

  • Solubility in water: Insoluble 

  • Solubility in carbon disulfide: Soluble 

  • Odor: Garlic-like

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons ccw

  • CCW also known as the Inhumane Weapons Convention

  •  It is a  landmark international treaty that prohibits or restricts the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects. 

  • It was adopted on October 10, 1980, and entered into force on December 2, 1983.

  • The CCW is composed of a main body and five annexed protocols, each of which deals with a specific type of weapon or weapon system. 

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons ccw

The protocols are:

  • Protocol I - Prohibition or Restriction on the Use of Weapons Which May Cause Excessive Injury or Undue Suffering or Which Have Indiscriminate Effects.

  • Protocol II - Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices.

  • Protocol III -  Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons.

  • Protocol IV -Blinding Laser Weapons

  • Protocol V  - Explosive Remnants of War

  • As of July 1, 2023, 126 states have ratified or acceded to the CCW. 

  • There are 119 states parties to Protocol I, 106 to Amended Protocol II, 115 to Protocol III, 109 to Protocol IV and 97 to Protocol V.

  • The CCW is one of the most important instruments of international humanitarian law.

  • The CCW is also notable for its inclusive approach, as it applies to all types of armed conflict, both international and non-international. 

  • This means that the CCW's prohibitions and restrictions apply to both state and non-state armed groups.

Chemical Weapons Convention(CVC)

  • CWC, officially the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.

  • It is an arms control treaty that prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons by States Parties

  • It also sets out a process for the destruction of existing stockpiles of chemical weapons and their production facilities.

  • The CWC was adopted on January 13, 1993, and entered into force on April 29, 1997. 

Chemical Weapons Convention(CVC)

  • As of July 1, 2023, there are 193 States Parties to the CWC, representing more than 98% of the world's population.

  • The CWC headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands..

  • The CWC has played a major role in eliminating the threat of chemical weapons. 

  • Since its entry into force, over 99% of the world's declared stockpiles of chemical weapons have been destroyed. 

  • The CWC has also helped to prevent the re-emergence of chemical weapons by prohibiting their development, production, and transfer.

White phosphorus in conflict zones

  • White phosphorus is a highly flammable chemical substance that can be used in a variety of military applications, including as a smoke screen, an illuminating device, and an incendiary weapon. 

  • When used as an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus can cause severe burns and respiratory problems, and it can be particularly deadly in civilian areas.

  • White phosphorus is not explicitly banned by international law, but its use is regulated by the CCW. 

White phosphorus in conflict zones

  • Protocol III of the CCW prohibits the use of incendiary weapons against civilians.

  • It requires parties to the conflict to take all feasible precautions to avoid civilian casualties when using incendiary weapons against military targets.

  • The use of white phosphorus in conflict zones has been controversial for many years. 

  • In recent years, there have been a number of allegations that white phosphorus has been used illegally in conflict zones, such as Gaza and Iraq



Amritsar,1,April 2024,301,Art & Culture,1,August 2023,251,Courses,7,Daily Current Affairs,48,December 2023,189,Disaster Management,2,Environment and Ecology,145,February 2024,228,Foundation Course,1,GDP,1,GEMS Club,1,GEMS Plus,1,Geography,151,Govt Schemes,2,GS 2,1,GS1,6,GS2,31,GS3,15,GST,1,History,7,Home,3,IAS Booklist,1,Important News,71,Indian Economy,112,Indian History,2,Indian Polity,129,International Organisation,12,International Relations,93,Invasive Plant,1,January 2024,240,July 2023,281,June 2022,6,June 2023,268,June 2024,140,March 2024,238,May 2022,17,May 2024,330,Mentorship,2,November 2023,169,October 2023,203,Places in News,2,Science & Technology,66,Science and Technology,86,September 2023,205,UPSC CSE,111,
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: White Phosphorus UPSC NOTE
White Phosphorus UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content